The textbook covers the main areas of an introduction to psychology in 15 chapters. That's convenient because we have 15 weeks in the semester. So, students will be formed into teams, and each team will work with me to be responsible for teaching the material in each of the 15 chapters. (Actually, I'll handle Chapter 1, this week.) Each team will be responsible for teaching three of the chapters in the text. (The appendix on Statistics will be covered.)
I have taught this class for over 30 years. For most of those years, I have stood in front of the class, and "lectured" to students about what is in the book. In recent years, I have incorporated student presentations into the format. This semester, I wish to continue the evolution toward a student-centered approach in the teaching of Introduction of Psychology. Accordingly, I am asking you, the students, to share responsibility for the teaching of the course material.
An APA-style research report begins with a . The title is centered in the upper half of the page, with each important word capitalized. The title should clearly and concisely (in about 12 words or fewer) communicate the primary variables and research questions. This sometimes requires a main title followed by a subtitle that elaborates on the main title, in which case the main title and subtitle are separated by a colon. Here are some titles from recent issues of professional journals published by the American Psychological Association.
In some areas of psychology, the titles of many empirical research reports are informal in a way that is perhaps best described as “cute.” They usually take the form of a play on words or a well-known expression that relates to the topic under study. Here are some examples from recent issues of the .
In addition, each student in the class will be tasked with finding one recent article in psychology (using the PsychInfo search engine), or one recent article in the periodical literature (current newspaper, magazine, or something online), that pertains to the subject matter in the course. Each student, each week, should be prepared to offer a brief (2-4 minutes) review of the article that they discovered in their search of the relevant databases. Students will deliver brief synopses, or oral abstracts, of the articles that they discovered for the Thursday discussion (these should be delivered to the Sakai website PRIOR to the Thursday class).
How would the misinformation effect influence memory?
a created memory
attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, or imagined
incorporating false information into memory
Mood Dependent Memory
Person needs to only identify items previously learned
Example: multiple choice tests
Person must retrieve information learned earlier
Example: essay tests
Methods of Retrieval
Who wants to do a map on the board?
Like any effective argument, the literature review must have some kind of structure. For example, it might begin by describing a phenomenon in a general way along with several studies that demonstrate it, then describing two or more competing theories of the phenomenon, and finally presenting a hypothesis to test one or more of the theories. Or it might describe one phenomenon, then describe another phenomenon that seems inconsistent with the first one, then propose a theory that resolves the inconsistency, and finally present a hypothesis to test that theory. In applied research, it might describe a phenomenon or theory, then describe how that phenomenon or theory applies to some important real-world situation, and finally suggest a way to test whether it does, in fact, apply to that situation.
After capturing the reader’s attention, the opening should go on to introduce the research question and explain why it is interesting. Will the answer fill a gap in the literature? Will it provide a test of an important theory? Does it have practical implications? Giving readers a clear sense of what the research is about and why they should care about it will motivate them to continue reading the literature review—and will help them make sense of it.
Finally, remember that your goal is to construct an argument for why your research question is interesting and worth addressing—not necessarily why your favorite answer to it is correct. In other words, your literature review must be balanced. If you want to emphasize the generality of a phenomenon, then of course you should discuss various studies that have demonstrated it. However, if there are other studies that have failed to demonstrate it, you should discuss them too. Or if you are proposing a new theory, then of course you should discuss findings that are consistent with that theory. However, if there are other findings that are inconsistent with it, again, you should discuss them too. It is acceptable to argue that the of the research supports the existence of a phenomenon or is consistent with a theory (and that is usually the best that researchers in psychology can hope for), but it is not acceptable to contradictory evidence. Besides, a large part of what makes a research question interesting is uncertainty about its answer.
For psychology articles, use the online search engine at Honnold Libary, and search the PsychInfo database. This will be demonstrated in class. For a step-by-step, . For popular press articles, go to a newspaper or magazine website (e.g., , , , , , etc.), and search for keywords relevant to the readings in that week's chapter. The psychology today website is especially useful.
An additional purpose of the course is to provide students with an introduction to the writing of papers in psychology. This introduction includes: searching the psychological literature (focusing on the PsychInfo search engine), storing and organizing the literature, and writing the review of literature.
The following resources contain the remaining available Free Response Questions and Scoring Guidelines for the AP Psychology Exam. To access the files below, you need to log into your College Board account. If you do not have a College Board account, you can create one by selecting ‘Sign In’ in the header and following the prompts to Sign-Up.