Art Costa, Robert Garmston, and Diane Zimmerman (2012) defined five states of mind that "create a growth mindset that is a potent force for fostering collective excellence and influencing, motivating, and inspiring our intellectual capacities." They include the drive for efficacy, the drive for consciousness (reflection on one's actions and those of others), the drive for flexibility, the drive for craftsmanship, and the drive for interdependence. Effective teachers demonstrate those dispositions.
How does the classroom environment affect motivation? In such an environment just described, Sullo (2009) indicated that there is no fear factor, which some teachers themselves invoke just by their tone and what they say in reaction to learners' deeds and actions. Sometimes teachers are not even aware of the affect their sarcasm and negativism might have on motivation. In a culture of success, the teacher's message should be "This is important. You can do it. I won't give up on you" (Ch. 2, Getting Started section). Teachers know how to internally motivate learners, rather than relying on external motivators as coercions and rewards/punishments that do not work for the majority of learners.
In Bob Sullo's view (2009) teaching over the past quarter-century has become more professional due to the emergence of a number of "best practices" that have significantly affected curriculum and instruction. "A sampling of innovations includes differentiated instruction, Understanding by Design, the emergence of state standards, the development of curriculum frameworks, scope-and-sequence charts that inform teachers of what to teach and when to teach it, the expanded use of technology in education, active literacy, curriculum mapping, and the proliferation of professional learning communities. Formative assessment informs instruction like never before" (Introduction section). What is striking is that CT4ME includes discussion of many of those innovations throughout this site.
Regardless of level of experience, teachers always are challenged with how to motivate learners, particularly when you consider the extent of diversity encountered in many schools in the United States. Such diversity involves "not only ways of being but ways of knowing" and "knowing how to relate to those qualities and conditions that are different from our own and outside the groups to which we belong, yet are present in other individuals and groups" (Queensborough Community College (NY), Definition for Diversity:). Queensborough Community College also noted that learners and teachers themselves bring to the learning environment a host of variables, such as beliefs, attitudes, perceptions, self-efficacy, motivation, learning styles, habits of mind, cultural influences and demographics (e.g., male/female, sexual orientation, ethnicity, ability/disability, socio-economic status, religion/spirituality, etc.). It is certainly helpful for teachers to be aware of their personal biases, beliefs, and attitudes, as those influence interactions with learners. However, it is also important to note Hiebert and Grouws (2007) who stated, "Characteristics of teachers surely can influence their teaching, but these characteristics do not determinetheir teaching. Teachers with different characteristics can teach in essentially the same wayand vice versa" (p. 377).
Abramović’s (fig. 1) performance from 1975 took place in the Krinzinger Gallery in Innsbruck. It is another example of the artist’s desire to examine the limitations of the body as well as the effects of both pleasure and pain. During the performance, Abramović undressed, framed a picture of a man with a five-pointed star, sat down, ate a kilogram of honey, emptied a bottle of wine and then broke the bottle. While she was facing away from the man’s photo, the artist carved a five-pointed star into her belly.
From an instructional styles perspective, Silver, Strong, and Perini (2007) noted that teachers who use mastery strategies focus on increasing students' abilities to remember and summarize. "They motivate by providing a clear sequence, speedy feedback, and a strong sense of expanding competence and measurable success." When focusing on interpersonal strategies, teachers use "teams, partnerships, and coaching" to help students better relate to the curriculum and each other. Understanding strategies help students to reason and use evidence and logic. Teachers "motivate by arousing curiosity using mysteries, problems, clues, and opportunities to analyze and debate." Self-expressive strategies highlight students' imagination and creativity. Teachers employ "imagery, metaphor, pattern, and what ifs to motivate students' drive toward individuality and originality." Finally, it's possible to use all four styles at the same time to achieve a balanced approach to learning (sec: Part One: Introduction, Figure B).
Curriculum Associates, Inc. also has a. Text is accompanied by audio. Handouts, supplementary readings, and short video clips of teachers explaining the use of a particular strategy in their classrooms are included. A broadband connection is recommended. The four lessons address principles of differentiated instruction, the role of formal and informal assessment in identifying student needs, strategies used in differentiated instruction, and guidelines for managing a differentiated classroom.
"Differentiating instruction means creating multiple paths so that students of different abilities, interest or learning needs experience equally appropriate ways to absorb, use, develop and present concepts as a part of the daily learning process. It allows students to take greater responsibility and ownership for their own learning, and provides opportunities for peer teaching and cooperative learning" (para. 2).
The multiple intelligences approach does not require a teacher to design a lesson in nine different ways to that all students can access the material...In ideal multiple intelligences instruction, rich experiences and collaboration provide a context for students to become aware of their own intelligence profiles, to develop self-regulation, and to participate more actively in their own learning. (p. 27)
Read the ASCD Express (1953). ASCD devoted its to the theme "The Challenge of Individual Difference," which is available online. In the lead article, , Carleton Washburne presented a short history of reform efforts aimed at making education more individualized. What a find.
There is much to be learned about improving instruction by examining initiatives within the U.S. that provide educators with the best-practice examples they might need. , which grew out of the Noyce Foundation's Silicon Valley Mathematics Initiative, is exemplary as a professional resource for educators passionate about improving students' mathematics learning and performance. This site features tools for educators, problems of the month, classroom videos, Common Core resources, and performance assessment tasks. The Ohio Department of Education developed a (Common Core State Standards) as of June 2010.
During the essay he will deliberately avoid most public and visual manifestation which was the museum, according to Robert Nelson (The Map of Art History, 28).
Students should become active in the learning process immediately upon entering the classroom. Muschla, Muschla, and Muschla-Berry (2013) stated: "Classes in which students begin working from the minute they take their seats are usually more successful than those in which the first few minutes are lost as the students get settled" (p. 3). Losing just the first five minutes daily amounts to 25 lost minutes per week of instruction and could amount to a loss of 20 class periods of instruction per school year. Their solution is using a math-starter problem that students begin immediately upon entering the classroom. In, they present at least one problem for each Common Core math standard for grades 6-12. Each is designed to be completed in 5-10 minutes, which includes reviewing the answer and any follow-up discussion. This strategy is also good for classroom management, as during this time the teacher can take attendance, pass back papers, interact individually with students, and observe students as they work (p. 3).