Page numbers are always required, but additional citation information can help literary scholars, who may have a different edition of a classic work like Marx and Engels's The Communist Manifesto. In such cases, give the page number of your edition (making sure the edition is listed in your Works Cited page, of course) followed by a semicolon, and then the appropriate abbreviations for volume (vol.), book (bk.), part (pt.), chapter (ch.), section (sec.), or paragraph (par.). For example:
We'll learn how to make a Works Cited page in a bit, but right now it's important to know that parenthetical citations and Works Cited pages allow readers to know which sources you consulted in writing your essay, so that they can either verify your interpretation of the sources or use them in their own scholarly work.
Howard, R. C. (1986). Psychopathy: A psychobiological perspective. (6), 795-806. doi:10.1016/0191-8869(86)90078-4 After critically examining the concept of psychopathy and reviewing the major existing theories of psychopathy in the light of a psychobiological conception of abnormal behaviour (ohman, 1981), this paper attempts to present an integrated, psychobiological model of psychopathy. Essentially this analyses psychopathy in terms of the predisposing influences, the triggering environmental events which initiate psychopathic behaviour, and the neurophsychological mechanisms which mediate it. It is suggested that individuals who show chronic antisocial behaviour, conforming to the North American term 'sociopath', may demonstrate a maturational deficit but do not necessarily show a psychopathic personality disorder. The latter is said to be characterised, at a personality trait level, by high Impulsiveness and Psychopathy (Blackburn, 1982 a, b), reflecting interactive deficits in goal direction and affect. At a dynamic (state) level, a psychopathic personality disorder is said to be characterised by a lack of coping, reflecting either, in the case of the secondary psychopath, a deficit in primary appraisal, (over-perception of threat), or in the case of the primary psychopath, a deficit in secondary appraisal (low perceived control over aversive environmental events). It is further suggested that a genetic predisposition to social withdrawal and exposure to an uncontrollably aversive early environment may interact to predispose an individual to develop a psychopathic personality disorder in adulthood. . . . There will be yet others within the broad class of so-called 'sociopathic' individuals who are neither primary nor secondary psychopaths. These individuals will not be particularly susceptible to stress either in the form of boredom or threat, and so episodes of 'psychopathic' behaviour will not readily be triggered. In general, therefore, although often recidivistically criminal, they should not be regarded as psychopathic in the sense of being personality disordered and would therefore more properly be detained in prison than in an institution for mentally abnormal offenders. Others again may tread a tightrope between legality and illegality and correspond to the 'non-institutionalised psychopath' (Widom, 1977), who while sharing some of the personality characteristics of the criminal psychopath, does not generally engage in antisocial behaviour.
Heinze, Peter, Allen, Rhianon, Magai, Carol, Ritzler, Barry. (2010). "Let's get down to business: a validation study of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory among a sample of MBA students." (4) 487-98 doi:10.1521/pedi.2010.24.4.487 While the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI) has gained increasing attention as a measure of noncriminal psychopathy, absent has been research involving samples including business people. This study investigated the validity of the PPI with such a population by examining the association between psychopathic traits and moral decision-making among MBA students. Sixty-six MBA students were assessed using the PPI, the MACH-IV (a measure of Machiavellianism), the Ethical Position Questionnaire (EPQ), and the Defining Issues Test (DIT-2). Only PPI Machiavellian Egocentricity was associated with level of post-conventional moral reasoning. MACH-IV Machiavellianism was a stronger predictor of the Subjectivist ethical position than were PPI subscales. However, a combination of MACH-IV Machiavellianism and four PPI scales accounted for 46% of the variance in Subjectivism. Results suggested that Machiavellian Egocentricity and Machiavellianism are distinct constructs. Benning, Patrick, Hicks, Blonigen, & Krueger (2003)'s two factor model of the PPI was also supported. In general, the findings provided further validation for the PPI as a tool for assessing psychopathic traits among "mainstream" individuals, including business people.
Forsman, M., Lichtenstein, P., Andershed, H., & Larsson, H. (2008). Genetic effects explain the stability of psychopathic personality from mid- to late adolescence. (3), 606-617. doi: 10.1037/0021-843X.117.3.606 This study examined the importance of genetic and environmental influence for the stability of psychopathic personality between mid- and late adolescence. The target sample consisted of all 1,480 male and female twin pairs born in Sweden between 1985 and 1986. Psychopathic personality was measured with the Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory (YPI; H. Andershed, M. Kerr, M. Stattin, & S. Levander, 2002) when the participants were 16 and 19 years old. Results showed that the 3 psychopathic personality dimensions were stable at different levels of analysis and linked to a stable higher order general factor (i.e., psychopathic personality factor). Genetic factors contributed substantially to the stability of this general higher order factor, whereas environmental factors were of little importance. However, the authors also found specific genetic stability in the Callous/unemotional and Impulsive/irresponsible dimension. Thus, the model provides evidence for etiologic generality and etiologic specificity for the stability of psychopathic personality between mid- and late adolescence. . . . Taken together, our model supports both etiologic generality and etiologic specificity for the stability of psychopathic personality. That is, most of the stable variance in psychopathic personality can be traced not only to a genetically influenced higher order general factor but also to unique genetic effects in the Callous/ unemotional and Impulsive/irresponsible dimensions.
Different style sheets (MLA, Chicago, etc.) have different conventions for quoting in literary essays. Normally I am tolerant of variations, but many students do not seem aware of some features shared by all for quoting poetry. Please follow the guidelines below (and your other professors will appreciate it if you do this in other classes).
The following overview should help you better understand how to cite sources using MLA eighth edition, including the list of works cited and in-text citations.
Cite page numbers for prose and line numbers for poetry. If you are quoting a poem translated into prose, cite line numbers if possible; otherwise cite page numbers. If you aren't sure about the difference between poetry and prose, .
MLA has turned to a style of documentation that is based on a general method that may be applied to every possible source, to many different types of writing. But since texts have become increasingly mobile, and the same document may be found in several different sources, following a set of fixed rules is no longer sufficient.
MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook (8th ed.), offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page.
Citing quotes in the Modern Language Association (MLA) format is pretty standard and therefore easy to comprehend. MLA is often used to cite quotes in essays within the liberal arts and humanities. Here is a professional guide to help students in any level:
Short quotations are direct quotes that are three typed lines or fewer. These are placed within your text and are enclosed within quotation marks. You should always indicate the author’s name as well as the page number in which the quote can be found in the referenced text. The complete citation information should appear in the Works Cited page at the end of your essay.
The standard rule of citing quotes in an essay for MLA is that anything that is more than four typed lines should be placed in a free-standing block of text indented one inch from the left margin. This quotation block does not need quotation marks and should be introduced with a trigger phrase in the last sentence of your text. The end of the quotation block should include the author’s name and page number within parentheses. Maintain double-spacing throughout.
Summary: MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook (8th ed.), offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page.