Also during this period Feng-Shui (or geomancy) developed as a ritual expression of Yin-Yang and the five Elements concepts which became a very important part of Taoist religious practices. These three main strands of thought, The Way of the Heavenly Master, Hsuan Hsueh (Neo-Taoism) and T'ai Ping led into the next period.3 The Later Age of Revelation During the Period of Disunity (220-618 CE) the influence of Buddhism grew in China, and as well as resisting the Buddhist metaphysical ideas the syncretic nature of the Chinese philosophical and religious character also found ways to adapt and incorporate the new beliefs.
The core being humanism, is believing that human beings are “teachable, improvable and perfectible through personal and communal endeavor especially including self-cultivation and self-creation.” ("Confucianism,") Confucianism emphasizes the importance of the family, reverence for e...
In the Song dynasty (960-1279 C.E), a reinterpretation of Confucian teaching called NeoConfucianism stratified the position of women even more. Augmented by ideas of wife fidelity and husband worship brought by the Mongols, NeoConfucian beliefs led to the egregious practices of footbinding, insistence on widow chastity, and the selling of unwanted daughters. Although footbinding illustrates the perceived need to limit female mobility, the practice did not appear until the Song Dynasty and was not universally followed. Women of most ethnic minorities, including Hakka and Manchu women, did not practice it, nor did some peasants who had to work in the fields, nor did women in Japan.
In China, the concept of gender difference appears visually in the male/female aspects of the yin/yang Taoist symbol. The dark swirl within the symbols circle is the passive, yielding, feminine yin; the light swirl the active, aggressive, male yang. Neither principle is considered subordinate to the other; each complements the other and is capable of expressing both female and male characteristics. Within Taoism, then, women were able to seek spiritual fulfillment beyond their family duties. Some joined convents, others gathered with men to discuss philosophy and religion, a few became Taoist adepts.
In Japan, the influence of Shintoism lessened the initial impact of NeoConfucian on womens lives. Within Shintoism women held power as mikos, a type of shaman with divination abilities. Before the 8th century, half of Japans reigning female sovereigns, such as the popular semi-legendary empress Jingu, were believed to have shaman-like powers. Japans sun goddess Amaterasu, to whom every emperor has had to claim direct descendancy, was also worshiped as a symbol of female mystical power. Her Great Shrine at Ise, cared for by high priestesses, still plays an important role in the lives of the Japanese today.
Womens independence was increasing limited during the long centuries of shogunate rule. Although in the early feudal period samurai women took a considerable role in household management and defense, by the Tokugawa Shogunate (1600-1868), womens rights within the samurai family were practically nonexistent. The oft quoted Three Obediences dictated their lives: When she is young, she obeys her father; when she is married, she obeys her husband; when she is widowed, she obeys her son. The 1762 treatise called Greater Learning for Women illustrates this NeoConfucian ideal of proper female behavior.
The quest for immortality (Hsien), the traditions of the masters of the occult (Fang-Shih), and the quest for the Isles of the Blest (Pengl'ai) together with the ideas from the Yin-Yang and the Five Elements school (which expressed the inter-dependence between all phenomena by defining the principal cosmic forces of the universe and their relationships) blended with the early Taoist philosophical ideas to move forward into what can be broadly called the early Taoist period.
The validity of Lao Tzu has been brought into question, and many believe the Tao Teh Ching is actually the work of several authors in one compilation of ideas thought well before the sixth century or even fourth century, BCE (Coogan 222)....
He observed many of the other various characters before coming to the conclusion that Winnie the Pooh, through his actions, was the character that he felt would be able to best explain the principles of Taoism.
Duringthe so-called Spring Autumn Period (770-476 , thisritual system was no longer enough to keep the society stable. Benevolence,righteousness, and ritual are the principle belief of Confucianism. When aprimary society is in trouble facing an unwanted division, they called onmembers' subconscious to feel the emotional and psychological bond they havewith the society. Confucian scholars are those who heard such voices and calledon the society for benevolence and righteousness. According to Lao Tzu, violence-basedlegal system was invented only after chaos set in. Legal system represents therational thinking, and therefore, the subjective conscious mind.