There are several human factors that influence the severity of a natural disaster. Even within the same region, different people have different levels of vulnerability to natural hazards.
Now, women in China are well aware of the consequences of becoming a prostitute, which can cause, HIV/AIDS, other sexual transmitted diseases, sentence to prison, poverty, and even death....
A 'jobs guarantee' is an attractive alternative for those who are concerned about the moral consequences of distributing 'unearned' income. This is most unlikely to be a real problem in a capitalist world since an unearned income solution would never get off the ground. Even 'welfare recipients' are, almost always, keenly aware of those who are 'free-loading' on the system.
A broad consensus has emerged among policymakers, academics, and other informed observers around the world that the goals of monetary policy should be established by the political authorities, but that the conduct of monetary policy in pursuit of those goals should be free from political control. This conclusion is a consequence of the time frames over which monetary policy has its effects. To achieve both price stability and maximum sustainable employment, monetary policymakers must attempt to guide the economy over time toward a growth rate consistent with the expansion in its underlying productive capacity. Because monetary policy works with lags that can be substantial, achieving this objective requires that monetary policymakers take a longer-term perspective when making their decisions. Policymakers in an independent central bank, with a mandate to achieve the best possible economic outcomes in the longer term, are best able to take such a perspective.
(, Remarks by Ben S. Bernanke, Chairman, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, at the Institute for Monetary and Economic Studies International Conference, Bank of Japan, Tokyo, Japan, May 26, 2010)
It seems inevitable that, should a world central bank eventuate, it would develop very similar credit creation policies and practices to those found in private banks, providing . This would, almost certainly, result in mounting sovereign central bank debts 'owed' to the world central bank and consequent subservience of sovereign central banks to that 'world' bank. Stranger things have happened, as has described
Even with the rise of the welfare state in the '30s, corporations continued to assume responsibility for the well-being of their employees. It was part of a grand bargain between labor, capital, and government that allowed for remarkable growth, innovation, and rising standards of living for decades. It also served as a bulwark against socialism. By endowing labor with dignity, welfare capitalists made industrial work a ticket to the middle class.
For some of the unintended consequences of this shift, see: )
The global economy which has emerged has been based on a progressive removal of national governmental restrictions on international market activity. We will examine some of the demands made for the internationalization of market activity over the period and some of the consequences of unregulated, international market exchange for both First and Third World communities.
In the minds of those who accept this logic, there are only individuals and the economy . Everything else is a consequence of economic interaction between competing individuals. Those individuals should take responsibility for the provision of their own needs and wants, they should not demand contributions from other competing individuals. That is, 'user pays' principles should apply to social costs.
From the mid-1960s, as the post 2nd World War economies of Western nations reaped the consequences of an overheated 1950s economic boom, neoliberal arguments were increasingly successful in challenging the legitimacy of the protectionist legislation of the period.
After a period of economic boom conditions in Western countries following the 2nd World War, they experienced a decade of economic stagnation. This gave economists and those convinced that the reforms of the 1930s were both economically and morally wrong, a base from which to argue that the changed economic fortunes of the West were a consequence of the 1930s reforms.
National borders and 'parochial' legislatures are now seen as impediments which can and should be overcome to ensure genuinely deregulated, internationalized free markets. The consequence of this mindset has, in the 2nd decade of the 21st century, resulted in a range of, often secretly negotiated, sovereignty-threatening, 'free trade' agreements aimed, not only at ensuring further deregulation of trade but, more importantly, at minimizing the effectiveness of 'parochial' legislation in regulating and controlling internationalized corporate organization and activity.
Western nation-states, once firmly in control of economic activity within their borders are, in the deregulated, privatized world of the 21st century, decreasingly able to shield their populations from the exploitative consequences of unregulated and internationalized financial manipulation.
Private businesses were now competing with businesses which were able to tap the resources of countries where no social welfare component was included in production. So, Western enterprises should be compensated by government for any continuing residual social welfare costs associated with production (see for more on the consequences of this activity over the past half century).