"positive psychology holds that the scientific understanding of subjective well–being—pleasure, contentment, joy, mirth, ecstasy, ebullience, and the like—is important. We believe, however, that positive psychology is not only the study of positive feeling but also the study of positive traits and positive institutions. Within the study of positive emotion itself we divide it into emotion about the past (satisfaction, contentment, pride, and the like); the present, which is commonly termed by the layperson (pleasure, ecstasy, joy, and the like); and the future (hope, optimism, trust, faith, and the like). Seen this way, although happiness in the lay sense is one important subject of positive psychology, it forms only one third of the area of positive emotion, which in turn forms only one third of the domain of positive psychology" (Seligman & Pawelski, 2003, p. 160).
Kristjansson describes the three major approaches to happiness in positive psychology, number one: "Hedonistic accountsconsider happiness to be identifiable with pleasure as a raw, undifferentiated, subjective feeling. The happy life is the life of such maximized pleasures" Number two, life satisfaction accounts. These two approaches are often seen together and are considered subjective measurements simply asking an individual how he or she feels about him or herself and are open to issues like self–deception. The third approach, eudaimonistic accounts, beginning with Aristotle was that happiness must be measured objectively. "according to Aristotle, it is empirically true that the flourishing of human beings consists of the realization of intellectual and moral virtues and in the fulfillment of their other specifically human physical and mental capabilities." "Aristotle's is an explicitly moral notion, not conceptually, but empirically: it is, impossible to achieve without being morally good—without actualizing the moral virtues" positive psychology takes the position that happiness must be plural and combine these three approaches (the balanced view described by Haidt, 2006). (Kristjansson, 2010, p. 300).
"Unfortunately, it [humanistic psychology] never penetrated mainstream psychology, even though Maslow had been president of the American Psychological Association. The reasons for remaining a largely therapeutic endeavor outside of academic contact probably had to do with its alienation from conventional empirical science. Unlike Rogers and Maslow, subsequent leaders in Humanistic Psychology were quite skeptical about conventional empirical methods. They coupled their important premises with a sloppier, radical epistemology stressing phenomenology and individual case histories. This made it doubly hard for mainstream psychology to digest. But academic psychology of the 1960s was constipated, and they never invited Humanistic Psychology in" (Seligman, 2002a, p. 275).
"Unfortunately, humanistic psychology did not attract much of a cumulative empirical base, and it spawned myriad therapeutic self–help movements. In some of its incarnations, it emphasized the self and encouraged a self–centeredness that played down concerns for collective well–being. Further debate will determine whether this came about because Maslow and Rogers were ahead of the times, because these flaws were inherent in their original vision, or because of overly enthusiastic followers. However, one legacy of the humanism of the 1960s is prominently displayed in any large bookstore: The ''psychology'' section contains at least 10 shelves on crystal healing, aromatherapy, and reaching the inner child for every shelf of books that tries to uphold some scholarly standard" (Seligman & Csikszentmihalyi, 2000, p. 7).
Qualitative and quantitative information provide the numerical or categorical results (quantitative)of something while explaining the reasons and motivations(qualitative) that have caused the events to occur in the first place.
As a manager, it is imperative to identify certain behaviors within the work environment and within teams. Understanding organizations and their effective functioning requires the development of a comprehensive view of human behavior. Possessing a strong knowledge of organizational behavior is an asset that will prepare employees for leadership roles. Such knowledge is essential for meeting the challenges and uncertainty that confront today’s organizations.
The original ideas of Dr. Jerry Westbrook are the basis for the secrets of successful management highlighted in the book (162). With these ideas expounded upon, Craig A. Stevens uses them to create the story’s pivotal management model. Stevens titles his model, “The Mobile of Excellent Management.” Structured as a hanging model, successful management finds balance under the hand of effective leadership. After examination of the model, one discovers that Stevens emphasizes seven key management attributes. They are: leadership, culture, customer focus, team building, problem solving, continuous improvement, and performance measures. The following graphic illustrates how these attributes find support and balance within the management framework.
"Therefore we now amend AH theory to postulate a fourth and different road to "happiness." The Achieving Life. A life dedicated to achieving for the sake of achievement". . . . "People who lead the Achieving Life are often absorbed in what they do, they often pursue pleasure avidly and feel positive emotion (however evanescent) when they win, and they may win partly in service of something larger" (Jayawickreme, Pawelski, & Seligman, 2009, p. 13).
Teams develop characteristics that set them apart from other teams. Any work team may have its own rituals and traditions that make it a unique work unit. These characteristics are much like family characteristics. They establish cohesiveness and group identity. “Just as leaders have styles - so do teams have modes or patterns of behavior as perceived by others.” (Hersey, Blanchard, Johnson 328).
The second problem-solving mode is the Organizational Problem-Solving Mode. When in this mode, high amounts of both task and relationship behaviors are needed. Leaders must place considerable emphasis on structuring team activities and motivating team members. (Hersey, Blanchard, Johnson 329). They should also spell out tasks, ask members for ideas, and encourage conversation in order to assure a productive team meeting.
In today’s rapidly changing workplace environments, conflict and change are formidable challenges to meet. Both have the potential to greatly impact an organization’s workforce, and, ultimately, its bottom line. Managers must possess an understanding of human behavior and an ability to create healthy, secure work environments. They must also be able to meet the needs of individual employees, while still achieving organizational goals. Exemplary leaders understand that excellent management principles are vital for keeping pace in a rapidly changing world. They know these principles are the tools that help to create empowered employees and strong organizations.
In light of this information, how do organizations produce content employees who are productive and creative? How can leaders harness such human resources and use them to create strong teams? Authors, Craig A. Stevens and Michael Moore, have written a fictional story that answers such questions. Their book, Geronimo Stone: His Music, His Love, and the Mobile of Excellent Management, contains many management principles practical for real life application.