Egan, Desmond. (1990) The Death of Metaphor, Newbridge: Kavanagh Press. Downes, David A. (1959) Gerard Manley Hopkins: A Study of his Ignatian Spirit. New York: Bookman, Fontana,
Heuser, Alan. (1958) The Shaping of Gerard Manley Hopkins. U.S.: Oxford UP.
Hopkins, Gerard Manley. Poems and Prose of Gerard Manley Hopkins. (1998) Ed.
W. H. Gardner. Great Britain: Penguin Books.
Other archetypes that appear in Hopkins's work include the victorious soldier, represented by Christ usually; the Trickster, sometimes represented by God; the Shadow, usually represented by Hopkins especially in his moments of deep depression; the Anima, represented by the mermaid and the kingfisher. Other devices Hopkins uses to create images of transcendence include not only fire, water, air, and earth but also symbols of color. Perhaps the most recurring color Hopkins uses is blue, a highly spiritual color as it suggests "the infinity of the sky and space, and the robe of the Queen of Heaven," the Virgin Mary (Fontana 144). While it is impossible at this time to present in depth Hopkins's application of these devices to create images of transcendence, it is important to point out that a study of this type might lead to a better understanding of Hopkins and his work. Emerging from this brief study is that Hopkins' images of transcendence reveal as much about himself as they do his philosophical and religious beliefs. Certainly, his search for self-identity, his love for and trust in God, his sense of joy and sadness in the universe, his self-doubt, and his concerns for the destructive path humanity seemed to be following form the core of a majority of his poems as evidenced in such titles as "Let Me Be to Thee as the Circling Bird," "Moonrise," "God's Grandeur," "The Starlight Night," Pied Beauty," "Hurrahing in Harvest," "To Seem the Stranger," "Nondum (Verily Thou art a God that hidest Thyself)." Forming an even deeper connection between Hopkins's poems and evolutionary process to self and universal discovery is his unintended use of archetypes and other symbols. Hopkins's poems are as complex as is he, but they are intellectual poems that merit our attention, for they also reveal something about us and make us question who we are and where we are traveling in this vast universe. Bibliography Boyle, Robert.
Hopkins and the collective unconscious Since Jung noted the usage of these archetypes in international myths and legends, he believed that they did indeed stem from what he came to call the "collective unconscious" and began using them in analyzing his patients. As writers became more and more familiar with the concept of archetypes, they began using these in their writings to further enhance their characterizations. While Hopkins would have had no access to Jung's theories, he still seems to have tapped into the "collective unconscious" in many of his poems.
Lewis' or the poetry of Milton and Gerard Manley Hopkins, all three of which are profoundly religious, but which do not necessarily represent a struggle to verbalize an intense religious vision in the same manner as a mystic writer. MYSTOI: The Greek term for , see above.
This theme flows through many of Hopkins's poems such as "Deutschland." Hopkins clearly pronounces that God is present in everything in this world: (N. 316; quoted in Peters 7).
Images of metaphysical transcendence in either the form of earth, air, fire, water, and/or archetypes abound throughout Gerard Manley Hopkins's writings, including his poems, letters, journals, essays, sermons and correspondence with friends and colleagues.
Evelyn Wilson looks at Images of metaphysical transcendence as earth, air, fire, water, and archetypes abound throughout Gerard Manley Hopkins's poetrys. These images grow in textual and spiritual depth.
In Peters's excellent discussion and analysis of Hopkins's poems and his implied meanings of inscape and instress in his writings, I believe he presents a workable definition for Hopkins's intended usage of "inscape" and "instress" in his poems and that his respect for Hopkins's perception of the world in which he lived should remind readers that in examining Hopkins's work, especially his images of transcendence, that Hopkins is a serious, intellectual man who took life, his poetry, and his spiritually seriously and that his work deserves careful attention and respect, that Peters's definitions of inscape and instress are indeed relevant in the examination of Hopkins' writings and his beliefs in Spiritual transcendence.
"The World is charged with the grandeur of God."
"Glory be to God for dappled things –"
"Thou art indeed just, Lord, if I contend"
Religion was very important to , who was ordained as a Jesuit priest in 1877. This was true in both his life and in his poetry – the above lines are from the beginnings of a few of Hopkins's most famous poems ("," "," and "Thou Art Indeed Just, Lord, If I Contend"). In fact, the majority of what we consider his greatest poems were actually written during the twelve-year period just after his ordination and until the time of his death from typhoid in 1889.
From the inventive and passionate rush of his language in "Spring" and in his other works, you can tell that Hopkins didn't experience his spiritual life in a calm, simple way. In poems like "Spring," God and the lushness of creation are felt with the force of a lightning strike.
And, as we see in "Spring," being a priest did not mean that Hopkins felt certain about everything, or that all his questions were answered. In fact, Hopkins allowed all manner of questioning to enter his poems. "Spring" deals with many of Hopkins's main concerns: awe, wonder, and praise of the beauty of the natural world; sin and the possibility of being saved from sin; and anguish and lack of understanding when it comes to the ways of the universe and God.
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