Most economic analyses of rebound focus narrowly on particular uses or categories of uses: if people buy a more efficient clothes dryer, say, what will happen to the energy they use as they dry clothes? (At least one such study has concluded that, for appliances in general, rebound is nonexistent.) Brookes dismisses such “bottom-up” studies, because they ignore or understate the real consumption effects, in economies as a whole.
Therefore, it is very important to find the right way to transmit this essential information to the students in order to promote creativity and efficiency for the new generations which are considered the drive to innovation, social and economical growth (V....
Efficiency improvements push down costs at every level—from the mining of raw materials to the fabrication and transportation of finished goods to the frequency and intensity of actual use—and reduced costs stimulate increased consumption. (Coincidentally or not, the growth of American refrigerator volume has been roughly paralleled by the growth of American body-mass index.) Efficiency-related increases in one category, furthermore, spill into others. Refrigerators are the fraternal twins of air-conditioners, which use the same energy-hungry compressor technology to force heat to do something that nature doesn’t want it to. When I was a child, cold air was a far greater luxury than cold groceries. My parents’ first house—like eighty-eight per cent of all American homes in 1960—didn’t have air-conditioning when they bought it, although they broke down and got a window unit during a heat wave, when my mom was pregnant with me. Their second house had central air-conditioning, but running it seemed so expensive to my father that, for years, he could seldom be persuaded to turn it on, even at the height of a Kansas City summer, when the air was so humid that it felt like a swimmable liquid. Then he replaced our ancient Carrier unit with a modern one, which consumed less electricity, and our house, like most American houses, evolved rapidly from being essentially un-air-conditioned to being air-conditioned all summer long.
Modern air-conditioners, like modern refrigerators, are vastly more energy efficient than their mid-twentieth-century predecessors—in both cases, partly because of tighter standards established by the Department of Energy. But that efficiency has driven down their cost of operation, and manufacturing efficiencies and market growth have driven down the cost of production, to such an extent that the ownership percentage of 1960 has now flipped: by 2005, according to the Energy Information Administration, eighty-four per cent of all U.S. homes had air-conditioning, and most of it was central. Stan Cox, who is the author of the recent book “Losing Our Cool,” told me that, between 1993 and 2005, “the energy efficiency of residential air-conditioning equipment improved twenty-eight per cent, but energy consumption for A.C. by the average air-conditioned household rose thirty-seven per cent.” One consequence, Cox observes, is that, in the United States, we now use roughly as much electricity to cool buildings as we did for all purposes in 1955.
In less than half a century, increased efficiency and declining prices have helped to push access to air-conditioning almost all the way to the bottom of the U.S. income scale—and now those same forces are accelerating its spread all over the world. According to Cox, between 1997 and 2007 the use of air-conditioners tripled in China (where a third of the world’s units are now manufactured, and where many air-conditioner purchases have been subsidized by the government). In India, air-conditioning is projected to increase almost tenfold between 2005 and 2020; according to a 2009 study, it accounted for forty per cent of the electricity consumed in metropolitan Mumbai.
The resolution of this contradiction is of course that it is not necessary to assign a probability of zero to a novel sentence; in fact, with current probabilistic models it is well-known how to assign a non-zero probability to novel occurrences, so this criticism is invalid, but wasvery influential for decades.
His main argument being that, under any interpretation known to him, the probability of a novel sentence must be zero, and since novel sentences are in fact generated all the time, there is a contradiction.
Energy efficiency is the use of less energy than the industry standard for ventilation, heating, cooling, an artificial lighting to fulfil desired thermal comfort and task requirement of building occupants (Intrachooto, 2002).
In 1969 hefamously :
But it must be recognized that the notion of "probability of a sentence" is an entirely useless one, under any known interpretation of this term.
To prove that this was not the result of Chomsky's sentence itself sneaking into newspaper text, I repeated the experiment, using a much cruder modelwith Laplacian smoothing and no categories, trained over the from 1800 to 1954, and found that (a) is about 10,000 times more probable.
Formally, it is the ratio of energy (E) to its underlying assets (A) in the form of joules to monetary units of underlying immobilized assets (A), as represented by equation (4.1).
Furthermore, the statistical models are capable of delivering thejudgment that bothsentences are improbable, when compared to, say,"Effective green products sell well." Chomsky's theory, being categorical,cannot make this distinction; all it can distinguish isgrammatical/ungrammatical.
A highly simplified green OLEDwith a maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 54% and powerefficiency of 230 lumens per watt using outcoupling enhancement wasdemonstrated, as were EQE of 50% and power efficiency of 110 lumensper watt at 10,000 candelas per square meter.
But even ifyou are not interested in these factors and are only interested in thegrammaticality of sentences, it still seems that probabilistic modelsdo a better job at describing the linguistic facts.
In the analysis of whether there has been an increase in efficiency of privatization of State owned enterprises in developing nations a distinction must be made between the effects of privatization and liberalization; however the economic reform often goes hand-in-hand with each other....