The centriole is the dense center of the centrosome.
cytoplasm - the jellylike material outside the cell nucleus in which the organelles are located.
Golgi body - (also called the Golgi apparatus or golgi complex) a flattened, layered, sac-like organelle that looks like a stack of pancakes and is located near the nucleus.
The Golgi body packages proteins and carbohydrates into membrane-bound vesicles for "export" from the cell.
lysosome - (also called cell vesicles) round organelles surrounded by a membrane and containing digestive enzymes.
Question Student response
What is the interdependent relationship between mitochondria and other organelles?
What are the similarities and differences between the Golgi apparatus and the endoplasmic reticulum?
What is the function of the central vacuole? Why does a plant require this function?
Describe the structure and function of chloroplasts. Include the terms inner membrane, outer membrane, stroma, thylakoid membranes, and grana. Include the functions of stroma and grana.
Explain the function of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum and the rough endoplasmic reticulum. How are their functions similar to those of the nucleus? How are they different?
For covalent, ionic, and hydrogen bonds, describe a) each type of bond, b) which is the strongest and weakest and why, and c) which disassociate in water and why.
Compare exergonic and endergonic reactions. Provide an example of each.
Discuss the similarities and differences between osmosis and diffusion. What are the driving forces behind each process? Why are membranes selectively permeable? How do they control what crosses them?
What role does solute concentration play in osmosis? How does water’s chemical potential influence osmosis?
Distinguish between osmotic pressure and potential. What organelle is related to osmotic potential? What organelle is related to osmotic pressure?
What role do aquaporins play in cell membrane permeability?
BIOL 401 focuses on essential principles and processes in cell biology and integrates these in the context of molecular biology. This senior-level course considers cell structure and function, bioenergetics, membranes, molecular genetics, and intercellular signalling.
The nucleus is surrounded by the nuclear membrane.
ribosome - small organelles composed of RNA-rich cytoplasmic granules that are sites of protein synthesis.
rough endoplasmic reticulum - (rough ER) a vast system of interconnected, membranous, infolded and convoluted sacks that are located in the cell's cytoplasm (the ER is continuous with the outer nuclear membrane).
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The mitochondrion converts the energy stored in glucose into ATP (adenosine triphosphate) for the cell.
nuclear membrane - the membrane that surrounds the nucleus.
nucleolus - an organelle within the nucleus - it is where ribosomal RNA is produced.