Severe premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a poorly understood collection of cyclical symptoms, which cause considerable psychological and physical distress. The psychological symptoms of depression, loss of energy, irritability, loss of libido and abnormal behaviour as well as the physical symptoms of headaches, breast discomfort and abdominal bloating may occur for up to 14 days each month. There may also be associated menstrual problems, pelvic pain, menstrual headaches and the woman may only enjoy as few as 7 good days per month. It is obvious that the symptoms mentioned can have a significant impact on the day-to-day functioning of women. It is estimated that up to 95% of women have some form of PMS but in about 5% of women of reproductive age they will be affected severely with disruption of their daily activities. Considering these figures it is disturbing that many of the consultations at our specialist PMS clinics start with women saying that for many years they have been told that there are no treatments available and that they should simply "live with it". In addition many commonly used treatments of PMS particularly progesterone or progestogens have been shown by many placebo controlled trials not to be effective. In fact they commonly make the symptoms worse as these women are progesterone or progestogen intolerant.
The emotional distress of children can also have an effect on their parents, causing depression that in turn will also affect the children, theoretically creating a never-ending cycle unless they seek treatment.
Even though this is not a social factor, it is important to point it out as a possible predisposition to depression based on social factors. If one partner suffers from chronic depression, it is very likely that the other partner will develop depression as well.
In the large proportion of couples experiencing marital distress, at least one partner is clinically depressed, adding even more stress to the other partner (McCullough, 2003). These inter-partner problems could even lead to physical abuse.
So on average, would all female students typically perform at a lower level than male students? On the whole, Beattie�s paper on the interpersonal causes of depression is highly engaging and well-structured.
Marital distress can lead to depression and depression can lead to marital distress. The hopelessness model is important as well, but Beattie did not comment on it.
Such abuse is generally perpetrated by the male but in some instances it comes from the female. In short, the stress-generation model of depression can help to explain the two-way relation between marital discord and depression.
It is also relatively unfair to say that the more intelligent a female is, the more likely she is to �out-smart� her male peers, so that her risk for experiencing depression is higher than average.
If one is convinced that one is helpless in controlling important events but is not sure if the bad outcome will actually occur, a mixed anxiety/depression syndrome will probably surface.
The lesson I have to teach is this: Merely organize society to act in harmony with this lesson. Let society's legal apparatus remove all obstacles the best it can. Permit these creative know-hows freely to flow. Have faith that free men and women will respond to the Invisible Hand. This faith will be confirmed. I, Pencil, seemingly simple though I am, offer the miracle of my creation as testimony that this is a practical faith, as practical as the sun, the rain, a cedar tree, the good earth.
In contrast, if one is convinced that bad outcomes will definitely occur regardless of what one does, then helplessness becomes hopelessness and depression sets in.
Genotypes oftentimes play a very important hand in the behaviors of mentally ill individuals. Gender is also mentioned as an important contributor to depression; more specifically, the paper discusses the experiences of the female sex.
It is normal to become depressed if one believes that there is nothing one can do to prevent a negative outcome (Gable & Nezlek, 1998). Stressful life events are a big cause of depression; even though they were discussed by Beattie, their importance was insufficiently stressed.
He points out that if one spouse experiences a depressive disorder, it is likely to affect the other spouse and cause him or her to experience the same disorder.
Dependent life events are ones for which one holds a partial responsibility; generally these are more likely to cause depression than independent life events.