Between 1910 and 1914, the NAWSA intensified its lobbying efforts and additional states extended the franchise to women: Washington, California, Arizona, Kansas, and Oregon. In Illinois, future Congresswoman of Illinois helped lead the fight for suffrage as a lobbyist in Springfield when the state legislature granted women the right to vote in 1913. This marked the first such victory for women in a state east of the Mississippi River. A year later Montana granted women the right to vote, thanks in part to the efforts of another future Congresswoman, Jeannette Rankin.
For the next two decades the NAWSA worked as a nonpartisan organization focused on gaining the vote in states, although managerial problems and a lack of coordination initially limited its success. The first state to grant women complete voting rights was Wyoming in 1869. Three other western states—Colorado (1893), Utah (1896), and Idaho (1896)—followed shortly after NAWSA was founded. But before 1910 only these four states allowed women to vote. “Why the West first?” remains a contested question. Some scholars suggest that the West proved to be more progressive in extending the vote to women, in part, because there were so few of them on the frontier. Granting women political rights was intended to bring more women westward and to boost the population. Others suggest that women had long played nontraditional roles on the hardscrabble frontier and were accorded a more equal status by men. Still others find that political expediency by territorial officials played a role. They do, however, agree that western women also organized themselves effectively to win the right.7
Whereas modern literature that contains feminist messages barely gets a second thought, readers in our time are intrigued and impressed by feminist works coming from a decidedly male-biased past....
Major solo exhibitions of Krugers work have been organized by the Institute of Contemporary Arts in London (1983), Museum of Contemporary Art in Los Angeles (1999), and Palazzo delle Papesse Centro Arte Contemporanea in Siena (2002).
Women have been in movies since they first started playing on the big screen, they have played an assortment of roles, the damsel in distress, the first one to die, the poor scullery maid who ends up a princess, the...
By the Second World War, female knitters were back in action, ready once again to make donations by means of the handmade. The Oakville Ontario war website, an online version of the 1999 exhibit Shadows of War: Not So Long Ago in the 20th Century featured at the Oakville Museum at Erchless Estate, boasts “one and one-half tons of wool knitted into sweaters, socks, and other woolen items. 26,000 hand-sewn and knitted articles, including 420 pieces of clothing for war refugees completed in only six days” – all this accomplished by the Oakville Women’s War Service League by 1940, only one year after the war had officially been declared.
The foregoing has reviewed feminist reflections on theories of art,noting how the histories of women in the arts inform contemporaryfeminist debates and practices. Equally important are assessments ofthe values that comprise the conceptual frameworks of aesthetics, fromwhich some of the most influential tools of feminist critical analysisemerge.
A good deal of feminist criticism has been focused oneighteenth-century philosophy because of the many influential works onbeauty, pleasure, and taste that were written at that time and thatbecame foundational texts for contemporary theories.“Taste” refers to the facility that permits good judgmentsabout art and the beauties of nature. While the metaphor forperception is taken from the gustatory sense, these theories areactually about visual, auditory, and imaginative pleasure, since it iswidely assumed that literal taste experience is too bodily andsubjective to yield interesting philosophical problems. Judgments oftaste take the form of a particular kind of pleasure—one thateventually became known as “aesthetic” pleasure (a termthat entered English only in the early nineteenth century).
The critique of tradition that fosters “writing thefeminine” proceeds from the discovery of a lack at the heart ofartistic representation, an absence of voices positioned to expressthe subjectivities of those who occupy the margins of social power. Incounterpoint, Ewa Plonowska Ziarek notes that worlds of art have alsoprovided a wealth of resources to uncover realities of gender,sexuality, social position, and race. However, the project ofdeveloping feminist aesthetics has often been eclipsed by thepolitical urgencies thereby disclosed, sidelining feminism withinaesthetics and aesthetics within feminism. Ziarek examines the worksof modernist women writers, arguing that the very artistic form oftheir works unifies the efforts of feminism and political practice in“complex relations between political and aesthetictransformations, their relation to gender and race differences, andthe role of materiality in political contestation and aestheticinvention” (Ziarek 2012a: 392; Ziarek 2012b).
The sometimes-fractious suffrage movement that grew out of the Seneca Falls meeting proceeded in successive waves. Initially, women reformers addressed social and institutional barriers that limited women’s rights, including family responsibilities, a lack of educational and economic opportunities, and the absence of a voice in political debates. Stanton and Susan B. Anthony, a Massachusetts teacher, met in 1850 and forged a lifetime alliance as women’s rights activists. Like many other women reformers of the era, they both had been active in the abolitionist movement. For much of the 1850s they agitated against the denial of basic economic freedoms to women. Later they unsuccessfully lobbied Congress to include women in the provisions of the 14th and 15th Amendments (extending citizenship rights and granting voting rights to African-American men, respectively).
Martha Rosler teaches at the Mason Gross School of the Arts at Rutgers University and the Städelschule in FrankfurtIf You Lived Here (Free Press, 1991).
She is also known for her writing and her lectures and has toured her lectures internationally in addition to publishing 15 books and textbooks on the role of photography and art, public spaces and expressing an interest in airports, roads, transportation and public housing/homelessness.