The most important element is having the pages arranged in a specific way in order for the images on the pages to tell a story and for it to be narrative as if they were mixed up the reader would not understand the story.
And yet, perhaps that very insistence on the eternal virtues of Marginal Revolution betrays my fear that it is too good to last. I see that Tyler has been persuaded to write , and that worries me. Does the Bloomberg economy produce psychic returns that the blog economy does not? I do not know. But even the fact that I think in those terms marks me out as a reader of Marginal Revolution.
Thirdly, the internet offers the opportunity to maintain cultural ties with one's country even when living abroad for work purposes. Expatriates can view electronic versions of newspapers, stream and download news, current affairs programmes and local dramas from their country of origin, so keeping in contact with the culture. It could be argued, as Azhad (2008) does, that this process could be facilitated just as easily by print media and DVD recordings being sent through the mail, as would have been the norm a decade ago. Nonetheless, it is the 'live' experience of being able to access news from home "as it happens" that reinforces a national's ties to the home culture, and simulates a feeling of "being there" (Olsten 2008 p.6). This connectedness to home alleviates feelings an expatriate might have of dislocation or alienation from their countrymen, as 'real time' exposure to the home vernacular creates common reference points, making communication a much smoother process (Wong 2009). Equally, other facilities afforded by the internet, such as Skype, enable someone away from home to still have a presence in the home country as they participate in the celebration of cultural festivals and national holidays, thus reinforcing their commitment to nationalism in the eyes of their compatriots and tightening the ties that bind. Alternatively, just as the internet serves to strengthen national identity, it can also provide a point of reference for those who live in a multicultural context.
Finally, in a globalised world, the last ten years have seen the internet augment a multicultural society by creating a venue to air diverse cultural opinions and to construct diverse cultural identities. Mainstream newspapers, radio and current affairs programmes are representative of a perceived norm and do not reflect the complexity of a multicultural society. In turn, ethnocentric or non-mainstream media reach a narrowly targeted audience and serve to further ghettoize "the other" (Zadrow 2010 p.11). The internet thus provides the opportunity for any voice to be heard alongside and equally with all other voices in the country, community, or indeed, the world. In this way the internet equips the global citizen with a fluidity they can use to exist and interact both globally and locally, rather than being confined to a fixed and marginalised identity. Notwithstanding the fact that the internet is English based and broadly advocates a western lifestyle, this does not necessarily mean it must lead to a homogenized world. Citing the research of Kennard, Zadrow (2010) maintains that the internet acts as an interactive archive from which an individual can draw all the elements to both create and, more importantly, preserve cultural identity.
Secondly, due to the increasing accessibility of the internet in the last ten years, participating in a religion no longer necessarily depends on a person's ability to attend a place of worship. The virtual 'congregation' may offer a person more opportunities of interaction with both the spiritual leader and other devotees by providing facilities such as blogs, chat rooms and video links. Moreover, this creates a sense of belonging to a religious or spiritual community where one may have not existed before, as more and more people commute, work longer hours and, indeed, are required to work on public holidays, which often coincide with religious festivals (Wong 2009). Though Goldstein (2008) ascertains that the flagrant consumerism promoted through such mass media outlets as the internet is responsible for a turn away from religious practices and a rapid decline in religious service attendance, her research focuses solely on, Christianity, Judaism and Islam and is not inclusive of growing sects such as Jews For Jesus and alternative religions such as The Baha'i Faith. Groups such as these use the internet to unite their followers globally (Wong 2009).What is more, the internet is uniting people on a more personal and intimate level.
Firstly, in the last ten years, modern family life has been enhanced by developments in technology, and the internet is no exception. The advent of the internet affords parents the opportunity to use the World Wide Web to work from home, removing the need to place pre-school age children in day care centres in the care of strangers and so reinforcing the family unit (Jenkins 2010). However, the benefits of the internet not only have implications for immediate family; members of the extended family can overcome the barriers of time or distance to remain close through such channels as email or social networking sites, for example Facebook. Despite this, Fenech (2007) asserts that the internet has eroded some aspects of family life. Where previous generations may have forsaken dinner conversation in order to watch television together, the practical dimensions of a laptop screen now preclude this act of "togetherness" (p342). Nevertheless, any avenue that generally allows more opportunity for contact between members of an immediate or extended family has to be seen as advantageous. Moreover, the internet allows a sense of inclusion that goes beyond the family sphere.
The French Revolution is a period of great of significance in the history of France and Western civilization. The revolution which began in 1789 represents an era of radical social and political transformation in France where power was taken from the monarchy and the few privileged members of the society and vested with the ordinary citizens. It is during this period that the absolute monarchy, which defined the structure of government in France, was dethroned and replaced with the French Republic founded on the Enlightenment principles of citizenship and inalienable rights (McPhee, 2002).
The revolution was not a smooth transition and it encountered great challenges during its different phases which exposed both its strengths and weaknesses. The people together with the various leaders of the revolution nevertheless soldiered on as they had taken a bold step and turning back was therefore not considered as an option. The darkest hour of the revolution came in 1792 when it took a radical turn in what is referred to as the reign of terror which ended in 1794 when order was restored. During this time the revolution was faced with the threat of counter revolution from the sympathizers of the monarchy in addition to invasion by foreign nations. However the manner in which the leadership of the revolution reacted to these challenges which has resulted in it being termed as the lowest point of the revolution.
In the period after the fall of the monarch, the less privileged members of society who were referred to as the sans-culottes began to make demands on the government arguing that it was bound by the duty to safeguard their existence. This could only be achieved if their living conditions were improved through better wages and reduced food prices. The also wanted the deal firmly with the counter revolutionaries who posed a threat to the gains made by the revolution (Neely, 2008). This was based on the fear that unless immediate action was taken the revolution would fail leading to the restoration of the monarchy.
The National Assembly which had taken over the affairs of the country after the fall of the monarchy comprised of two factions; the Girondins and the Jacobins. The Girondins were regarded as being more conservative than radical contrary to the Jacobins who believed that the use of force was necessary for the success of the revolution (Palmer, 2005). The national assembly was however dominated by the Girondins which did not go well with the sans-culottes who advocated for the execution of counter revolutionaries. They therefore decided to take the matter in their own hands in a bid to keep the revolutionary fire burning. On August 10, 1972, determined to completely destroy the monarch, they invaded the king’s palace and killed hundreds of guards. The king however fled and sought refuge in the Legislative Assembly.
A month later, they invaded prisons claiming that they harbored sympathizers of the monarchy. More than a thousand people were killed in the raid. This was followed by riots throughout the city as a sign of triumph over the monarchy. The situation was slowly getting out of hand prompting the National Assembly to abolish the monarchy and declare France a republic. In addition, King Louis XVI was charged with abusing his powers and disregarding the inalienable rights of the French people. He was executed a few months later after being found guilty of the charges. This marked the beginning of a new phase of the revolution where any dissenting voice would be silenced forever.