A Literary Analysis of The Lottery by Shirley Jackson A Literary Analysis of "The Lottery" by Shirley Jackson By making a close literary analysis of "The Lottery", ...
Welcome is every organ and attribute of me, and of any man hearty and clean,
Not an inch nor a particle of an inch is vile, and none shall be
less familiar than the rest.
The ticket was brought to lottery headquarters late Thursday by representatives of a group of 11 coworkers from Paducah Public Schools. Lottery officials say they work for the McNabb Head Start Program and call themselves the “Tiny Tornadoes”.
Staff members, who had not played together prior to Wednesday’s Powerball drawing, each kicked in $5. They got 27 quick pick tickets, according to Kentucky Lottery.
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112 Real Madrid. Join Richard with Real Madrid supporter Al before a Champions' League match (20 Nov 14)
111 Useful or useless? That's the question we ask about some household gadgets (18 Oct 14)
Save £47, now only £132.99 to squeeze a lemon!
110 Dennis the Menace. Jackie and Richard talk about comics and their favourite comic characters (18 Sep 14)
109 Drive, drove, driven. A podcast about driving and learning to drive. Beep! Beep! (7 Aug 14)
108 The Great War. Listen to some facts about the First World War which started a hundred years ago (3 Jul 14)
107 The World Cup. Facts and fun about one of the most coveted trophies in sport (5 Jun 14)
106 Holy Week. For the Easter festival the pie team tell the story of Jesus' last days (3 Apr 14)
105 The tramp. The pie team celebrate 100 years of Charlie Chaplin and his famous tramp (26 Mar 14)
104 A mouse in the house. Jo talks about some uninvited guests that are making themselves feel at home (27 Feb 14)
Windmill in Old Amsterdam:
103 Giddy up! Jackie and Richard share their riding experiences to celebrate the Year of the Horse (30 Jan 14)
How to go faster on a horse:
102 British icons: The Doctor. The pie team celebrate 50 years of Doctor Who (28 Nov 13)
Can you recognise these sounds from Doctor Who?
Trailer for The Day of The Doctor:
101 Mushrooms. Delicious and deadly, the pie team take care when picking their favourite free food (21 Nov 13)
How to choose the best Puffballs, and how to eat them mmmmm!
100 Catching up. Jackie hasn't see Sue for a while, what's the news from her and the family? (24 Oct13)
99 Whale watching. Jackie sails into the Mediterranean in search of marine life (29 Aug 13)
This podcast goes with this pie video:
98 The Grand Prix. Montreal, Monte Carlo, Melbourne - Formula 1 racing can now be seen all around the world (4 Jul 13)
Extra for teachers!
The first Grand Prix in 1950, the British Grand Prix in Silverstone:
97 On top of the world. 60 years ago this week 2 men stood on Mount Everest for the very first time (30 May 13)
Video of Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay on that epic Everest expedition:
96 Say 'cheese'! Jackie discovers that making cheese from scratch comes with some surprises (25 Apr 13)
This podcast goes with this pie video:
95 The people's pope? The Catholic church says goodbye Benedict, hello Francis (21 Mar 13)
The moment that everyone in the square was waiting for:
94 Under the weather. Richard's not feeling very well. Oh dear, what's the matter? (21 Feb 13)
What do you do when you've got a cold?
93 Lucky 2013 or not? A podcast about 'magic dates' and why they're disappearing (3 Jan 13)
Another chance to watch the wonderful London 2013 fireworks:
92 O Christmas tree! Why is the 'queen of the forest' part of the Christmas decorations? (6 Dec 12)
Sing along to the famous Christmas tree song:
And on a more humourous note:
91 Good boy! Guide dogs help blind people to enjoy the same freedom of movement as everyone else (11 Oct 12)
This podcast goes with this pie video:
And watch this great Guide Dogs interview:
90 The octogenerian. How does Robert feel about being 80 years old? (4 Oct 12)
89 Students abroad. Scott offers advice to ESL/EFL students at UK universities (6 Sep 12)
88 The Paralympics. Some interesting facts about the other half of London 2012 (26 Jul 12)
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Fascinating information about the Football 5-a-side:
87 The Fab Four. Fifty years later you can still hear The Beatles' songs being played on the radio - why is that? (28 Jun 12)
You don't necessarily hear guitars and drums on a Beatles song:
86 Mad or what? A British skydiver has jumped from a helicopter without a parachute - and survived! (31 May 12)
Watch the jump:
85 The winner takes it all. The lottery part 2: is life always better after winning a lot of money? (26 Apr 11)
A UK couple talk about spending £2 on a ticket and winning £101 million:
NOTE: I first wrote this article in 1993 when I became intrigued with the complexity of the music licensing system, and to help educate those who are affected by ASCAP, BMI and SESAC. I have been tinkering with it ever since trying to keep it more up-to-date, since I want to help shed some light on a complicated situation that has a large impact on musicians, music listeners and public places where music happens. My experience is that musicians, venues and the general public know almost nothing of this system that has a great deal of influence in the music business, and involves nearly a billion dollars annually. These organizations exist by a strange set of legal circumstances, and are very little understood or regulated, yet they have a wide influence and control a lot of money in the modern music industry and in hundreds of thousands of places of business. A number of publications declined to publish this, not wishing to stir up too much trouble. There have been many edits and updates since it was written, and one of these days I hope to seriously research and update it or encourage a professional journalist to dig into it... I welcome your input to update this information if you find something incorrect. My only intent is to explain what I understand to be the way the system works, though my own opinion that we could design a better system no doubt creeps in.
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In order to prevent the chaos of each music copyright owner trying to supervise any performance or broadcast uses of their work, and the equally large problem of each user having to seek out the owners of each song for permission, the intermediary licensing organizations (namely ASCAP, SESAC and BMI) sell licenses to anyone who uses copyrighted material that belongs to their members. ASCAP claims that "the public interest demands that such an organization exist" and that it is "the only practical way to give effect to the right of public performance which the Copyright Law intends creators to have." Permission is essentially always granted in the form of a yearly blanket license, that entitles a buyer to use anything in the ASCAP or BMI catalog during a calendar year. The price for this blanket license is determined by an elaborate formula that involves the demographics of radio and TV stations, concert ticket price, seating of the room, the form of music (radio, solo, band, show, theater, etc.) and number of hours per week music is being used. (Although people have written me recently and said that the rates are based on fire-code "potential occupancy" and not something real like attendance or cash register sales.) Currently, television comprises 46% of ASCAP's revenues, radio 35%, and presumably performance venues provide the other 19%. ASCAP may not deny a license to anyone, nor discriminate in their prices, and all similar users must supposedly pay the same rate. The cost of the blanket licenses, however, varies widely, and many complaints have been filed about unreasonableness of the fees. A small nightclub might pay anywhere from $200-1000 per year to ASCAP alone. (There is a built-in but seldom used appeals process involving the U.S. Southern District Court of New York, whereby any purchaser of a license may contest the reasonableness of their fees to the court. The burden of proof of reasonableness is reportedly on ASCAP.) Muzak®, jukeboxes and some other groups like Ringling Brothers Circus and Disney on Ice have arranged their own special licenses at lower rates. Any organization that fails to buy a license is at risk of being sued by a licensing organization on behalf of the copyright owner, who need not be present in the courtroom, incidentally, even though they are a party in the lawsuit. Even parades and political fund-raisers with a marching band have been sued, and the courts handed down a landmark judgement against The Gap clothing stores chain (Sailor Music vs. Gap Stores, Inc., 1982) that has launched an aggressive new ASCAP campaign against all manner of retail stores that play the radio or tapes for shoppers. (This ruling was recently overturned in appellate court, however) Even aerobics and yoga instructors who use music have been notified by ASCAP of their need for licenses for the dance music they use in exercise programs! The legalese states that: "a singer is performing when he or she sings a song; a broadcasting network is performing when it transmits his or her performances; (whether simultaneously or from records); a local broadcaster is performing when it transmits the network broadcast... and any individual is performing whenever he or she plays a phonorecord... or communicates the performance by turning on a receiving set."
ASCAP, BMI and SESAC have field agents on payroll, employed by their 23 field offices, who watch the newspapers and radio (and even hire clipping services) and when a new nightclub starts offering live music, for example, an agent will either show up or write a letter demanding money for the license. The PRO's have recently adopted a clever new way to find out where the live music venues are. Musicians are invited to submit lists of where they have performed, and are promised some money in payment for their having played original music. This is very tempting, especially for unknown musicians, who tend to get little or no money in royalty payments from ASCAP or BMI. This way the PRO's can find out where music is being performed, and they also have written testimonial evidence from a writer member of their organization that copyrighted music was performed there. This saves ASCAP and BMI from having to find the venues and then send spies in to observe copyrighted music being performed in venues that do not have licenses, and it looks just like an attempt to be fair to unknown songwriters and no doubt costs very little in payouts. There are reports that SESAC offers monetary rewards to members who "turn in" music venues that do not have licenses.
Refusals and arguments eventually lead to more serious letters and then lawsuits, and the club always loses, usually to the tune of tens of thousands of dollars in fines plus legal fees per infraction allowed by law. If a nightclub or even a store refuses to buy the license, then ASCAP or BMI will hire spies, often local music teachers or semi-professional musicians, who will make notes and testify in court as expert witnesses that on a certain day at a certain time a certain song was indeed played. Attempts by club owners to post "No ASCAP material to be performed here" signs or to ask that no musicians perform ASCAP material have not worked (Dreamland Ballroom vs. Shapiro, 1929; also Shapiro, Bernstein & Co. vs. Veltin, 1942), and invariably some musician unwittingly performs something in ASCAP's immense catalog. Note that even though the musicians or the employees decide what is played, it is the owner of the establishment where the music is played who gets sued. ASCAP bases this on the claim that "it would be a practical impossibility for ASCAP to locate and license musicians, who are often itinerant." Being a type of tort law, is not unlike the "deep-pockets" style of lawsuit that enables aggrieved parties to select which of the "jointly and severally liable" parties to sue, presumably whomever they might be likely to get money from, rather than just the party that caused the problem directly. (Technically these cases rely on what is called "secondary liability" and "vicarious infringement," which are not well-defined legal doctrines, and have been essentially entirely regulated by court rulings and not legislation.) According to current legal precedent, there is basically no way to "beat" the current system, as numerous nightclub owners who felt that the fees were unjust have found out.