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IB Extended Essay Guide Examination 2011 Contents Introduction 2 Appendix 1: Extended Essay proposal form Appendix 2: formulate a specific research question For many Extended Essays this will be phrased in the form



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Another important distinction between central and extended cognition relates to their informational requirements. The central cognition conception specifies that specific biological (internal) information is required to process task-specific (environmental) information, and hence that the centralised neural mechanisms, whether they be general or modular, must be sufficiently informed with task-relevant biological information to solve the tasks faced by the organism. In other words, the neural mechanisms must possess or draw on large quantities of biological information in order to function effectively; they are expected to be informationally greedy. Such biological information concerns or relates to properties of the task, and/or aspects of the world, and hence has a referential property. The most clear-cut examples here would involve communication with signs, whereby a behaviour (a vocalisation, a vibratory pattern) explicitly conveys to others information concerning an object or an event in the external world. Thus, the central cognition hypothesis endorses a representational stance to cognition, in which the external world is, in some way, mimicked or captured isomorphically within the nervous system (Gallistel ), for instance, as symbolic representations. Effective behaviour is thought to arise through the individual manipulating these representations, for example, planning future behaviour, prior to performing motor actions. The central cognition conception is informationally greedy because the brain either already possesses (i.e., in a nativist account) or through experience constructs (i.e., in an empiricist account) internal models of the external world. In contrast, extended approaches to cognition are either not representational, or at least require fewer representations, in their conception, and thus are less demanding in terms of the informational requirements of the brain. On this view, informational content is offloaded to the body, or to aspects of the world (Shapiro ; Pfeifer et al. ; Cappuccio ).

The central and extended cognition hypotheses lead to fairly general contrasting predictions. Ashby’s () ‘Law of Requisite Variety’ specifies that, if it is to be stable, the number of states of the control mechanism of a system (e.g., the variant states available to an organism) must be greater than or equal to the number of states in the system being controlled (e.g., the variant environmental states with which the organism must cope). It follows that organisms that experience more complex environments require more complex behaviour. Hence, from a central cognition perspective, individuals inhabiting more challenging environments, for instance with unpredictable fluctuations in resources, should possess larger or more complex brains than those in less complex environments (Shumway ). This prediction follows from the assumption that neural complexity or processing power underlies behavioural complexity, and that the requirement to solve challenging environmental problems in order to survive and reproduce selects for a rich neural architecture in the CNS capable of delivering behavioural flexibility. As an illustration of this reasoning, the ‘social brain hypothesis’ states that living in groups is cognitively demanding, because the complexities of social interactions impose a burden on cognitive processing (Dunbar ; Dunbar and Shultz ), for instance, requiring individuals to remember and contextualise diverse relationships, which is known to be critical for effective social interaction. Accordingly, living in larger groups is associated with increases in grey matter in mid-superior temporal sulcus and rostral prefrontal cortex in Macaques (Sallet et al. ). In general, the social brain hypothesis has found wide acceptance, notwithstanding criticisms concerning, for example, the difficulties it faces in accommodating non-modular aspects of intelligence (Reader et al. ) and in explaining graded changes in relative brain size (van Schaik et al. ).

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The central cognition hypothesis is being challenged from various perspectives (Noë ; Churchland ). It is clear, for example, that humans extend their information processing power through computers and a variety of so-called intelligent gadgets, but many other animals use tools, some of which may potentially function as information processing devices (Biro et al. ). It remains possible that some animal-constructed devices will also help the constructor to perform cognitively challenging tasks. We make no distinction here between the various ways that animals could extend their cognition out of the brain, nor are we defending one of these particular ways of extending cognition. While we acknowledge that differences exist between the embodied (Varela et al. ), the extended (Clark and Chalmers ), and the enactive (Thompson ) views of cognition, here we concentrate on the general similarity between them: that is, we focus on the general idea that somehow cognition also operates outside the bounds of the brain, and accordingly we refer to all variants of these views as extending cognition.

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Two further points are important here. First, at least in natural systems, information is a fundamentally relational property that pertains to particular organisms, and only exists to the extent that a communication channel is operating that allows the organism to read or extract it. Information cannot exist solely in the external environment. Second, while the notion of extended cognition inherently implies a trade-off between information stored in the brain and information distributed beyond it, any such trade-off operates within a species and not necessarily between species. Although it is hard to quantify, we envisage that different species of organisms will vary in the gross quantity of acquired semantic information that they possess, and hence that there is no reason to expect that large-brained organisms will not exhibit extended cognition: to the contrary, humans would seem a prime example.

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It is appropriate to indicate the conditions or types of tests that will require testing accommodations. Such conditions may include the length of the test, the purpose of the test, presentation of test items and the method of response required by the student. As examples: a student with a motor impairment may need a scribe for tests requiring extensive writing such as essay writing, but not for multiple-choice tests; or a student may need breaks at certain intervals for tests longer than an hour in length but not for 40 minute classroom tests. The purpose of clarifying the conditions of the test is to ensure that test accommodations are not provided excessively or when not appropriate to the purpose or type of test. If it is determined that the student needs a particular testing accommodation for all tests, then qualifying conditions are not indicated or would indicate “all tests.” For example, if the IEP/504 Plan states “use of scribe,” this accommodation must be provided for all tests regardless of the amount of writing that is required.

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Flexibility in setting may be needed in conjunction with other accommodations provided to the student. For example, changing the location of an examination may be needed to effectively provide extended time or use of a scribe.

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For example: A student with a motor impairment may need a scribe for tests requiring extensive writing such as essay writing, but not for multiple-choice tests; a student may need breaks at certain intervals for tests longer than an hour in length but not for 40 minute classroom tests.

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The mutual manipulability criterion (MM—Craver ) is the dominant means of assessing ‘constitutive relevance’, that is, of determining whether and when an entity is explanatorily relevant to the behaviour of a larger system. The MM’s popularity may perhaps follow from its intuitive plausibility (Baumgartner and Gebharter ). As applied to the problem at hand, one would like to know, for example, if a sensory field arising from the hairs (the trichobothria) on the cuticle of the leg of a spider, or even an external device (like the web), is constitutively relevant to the cognitive system, which is usually considered to be located within the confines of the brain. The MM helps us to understand whether the perceptual field, or the web, is part of a larger system that performs a particular cognitive function. According to the MM, if experimental changes in the external entity (the perceptual field or web) leads to changes in the cognitive system (for example, changes in the attention system) and, reciprocally, changes in the cognitive state of the system, entail changes in the external entity, then this entity can be regarded as a part of the cognitive system, and accordingly one can say that cognition extends to include the external entity (Kaplan ).

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