Students should work at all levels of the taxonomy. It should not be viewed as a ladder, however, nor as a framework for differentiated instruction (Tomlinson & McTighe, 2006, pp. 119-120). The taxonomy is helpful for breaking down state standards into meaningful components as teachers plan their instruction. Planning for instruction will be elaborated upon in of this essay on content and curriculum mapping.
Effective lessons incorporate best-practice. According to Daniels and Bizar (1998, as cited in Wilcox & Wojnar, 2000), there are six methods that matter in a " best practice classroom." These are integrative units, small group activities, representing to learn through multiple ways of investigating, remembering, and applying information; a classroom workshop teacher-apprentice approach, authentic experiences, and reflective assessment. Further, Mike Schmoker (2006) stated that "the most well-established elements of good instruction [include]: being clear and explicit about what is to be learned and assessed; using assessments to evaluate a lesson's effectiveness and making constructive adjustments on the basis of results; conducting a check for understanding at certain points in a lesson; having kids read for higher-order purposes and write regularly; and clearly explicating and carefully teaching the criteria by which student work will be scored or evaluated" (p. 25). In mathematics classrooms, teachers might tend to ignore writing about the discipline; however, to develop complex knowledge, "students need opportunities to read, reason, investigate, speak, and write about the overarching concepts within that discipline" (McConachie et al., 2006, p. 8).
Students may be reluctant to make judgements regarding their peers.
They may do not have the same knowledge
of how to evaluate as the teacher has.
Teacher has experience and criteria to do it
It is usually based on more objective aspects.
Pupils do not take part of the process.
Usually, pupils do not pay attention
at the results.
In short, you can evaluate a multimedia presentation essentially the way you would a piece of writing, with the content of the writing first and the mechanics (grammar and spelling) last. You might want to think about presentations in terms of a version of the : focus, organization, support and elaboration, style, and conventions, in that order.
Finally, when you evaluate students’ presentations, judge the content first. It’s tempting, and easy, to give lots of points for artfully designed slides and clever use of clip art. But remember our first two rules: it’s not about the presentation, at least not primarily. So, when designing a rubric for multimedia presentations:
With respect to a multimedia presentation, refers both to the style of the writing and to the appearance of the slides. Do word choice, sentence fluency, and voice reflect the presenter’s purpose and audience? (See our for an explanation of what these terms mean and how to evaluate them.) Similarly, do the layout and design of the slides, the fonts, and the images reflect the presenter’s purpose and audience? If it’s a serious presentation, for example, fonts should carry some visual weight — go with something simple, like Times or Verdana, rather than something cute like Chalkboard — and amateurish clip art should be avoided in favor of images that convey meaning and thoughtfulness of purpose. The layout of the slides — placement of headers and titles, for example — should be clear and free of ornament that distracts from the content of the presentation. Obviously, clashing colors or color schemes involving more than three or four colors should be avoided in almost any case.
This principle extends to all classroom use of technology and, for that matter, to any product you could ask students to create to demonstrate their knowledge or to share it with their peers. Whether it’s a database, a spreadsheet, a Web page, a traditional oral presentation, or something visual like a poster or a diorama, ask yourself what value the medium adds to the content. Does the medium enhance the content? Communicate it more effectively than a simpler medium (such as text or speech)? Make it easier to analyze and evaluate content you needed to work with anyway? If not, why choose that medium?
This paper can be extended to deal with individual performance, e.g. What were the best aspects of my performance? What were the worst? What did I learn from listening to my peers’ presentations? How can I improve my performance next time? For more information, see .
First, always remember that a presentation aid is a vehicle for communication. It is not a work of art unto itself. It is not designed primarily to entertain or to display artistry, though artistry and entertainment can aid communication. Before you design a presentation — whether or not you use multimedia software — ask yourself What am I trying to communicate? What ideas, information, or emotions do you want your audience to take away? (Before you assign your students a presentation, ask yourself what you want them to communicate — and make sure they ask themselves the same question.)
A PowerPoint presentation is just another form of communication, and the same rules apply to multimedia that apply to writing or verbal communication. This article offers guidelines for using and assigning multimedia presentations in the classroom and includes a rubric based on the Five Features of Effective Writing.
For a multimedia presentation, this includes the conventions of writing (grammar, spelling, and usage) as well as the layout of slides, legibility, and timing. Was the text free of errors in grammar, spelling, and usage? Had the presenter edited carefully or were there sloppy errors? Was the layout of the pages consistent and clean? Was the text easily readable, and headings clearly distinguished from regular text? (When we evaluate fonts with respect to conventions, we’re looking just at whether they’re readable, not whether they’re attractive or otherwise suitable to the presentation.) Notice that I have assigned only one-fifth of the total points to all of these qualities together. You may think this is extreme, and of course you’re free to change it.
A student who incorporates falsified or fabricated information (e.g. evidence, data, sources, and/or authors) will receive a score of 0 on that particular component of the AP Seminar and/or AP Research Performance Task. In AP Seminar, a team of students that incorporates falsified or fabricated information in the Team Multimedia Presentation will receive a group score of 0 for that component of the Team Project and Presentation.