First you listen to the programme, then you extend your knowledge by learning more about linking words and phrases and finally you can test yourself with our quizzes.
Yes, why not make a note of new linking devices when hear other people speak English – on the bus, waiting in a queue or watching TV. Note them on your phone or just write them down somewhere and then try to use them yourself.
The answer to this one is a bit less complicated, but againthe answer is not based on the traditional English alphabet. Most Englishspeakers have 24. (The sound, which is usually spelled inEnglish, is really just a combination of followedby , and was spelled this way in . Most English speakers no longer have thissound, though I and many other older speakers do in many parts of NorthAmerica, and in certain regions, particularly the South, nearly all speakersdo.)
: The red vowels are those which many but not allAmericans have, as distinguished from the other vowels. I decided to make the of the group for all but Eastern New England, since for those who make the distinctionit is by far the most common. In other words, for those who say all three thesame, only will be used in the phonemic spelling. However, in Eastern New England it makesmore sense to make the default vowel , because of the way it interacts with a following droppedr; e.g. “wad” and “ward” are pronounced the same in Eastern New England, butnowhere else in the world! They both come out ,which phonemically would be orperhaps .
American English (and most other varieties of English) has on each syllable of a word, primarystress, secondary stress, or no stress. Only one syllable in the word can haveprimary stress, and this is the syllable that is pronounced with the greatestintensity or loudness. The other syllables can have either secondary stress orno stress. An example is the word “”, pronounced .This word has 8 syllables, divided with hyphens as .It has one syllable with primary stress, , marked with bold and underline in the dictionaryspelling and with before it in the IPA. It hasthree syllables with secondary stress, syllables 1, 3, and 7, marked with boldin the dictionary spelling and with before themin the IPA, and four with no stress, syllables 2, 4, 6, and 8. As is true withmany words in English, especially long ones, every other syllable is weak(unstressed).
(Sermon starts around 13:00. His long vowels are fairly mixed, suggesting that he has tried to adjust his speech to some degree, but many are clearly Southern, and a few words are clearly Inland. In any case, this town is on the border, so some mixing may not be surprising. His other vowels are thoroughly Southern, so I am fairly confident that he grew up speaking Inland Southern. Another indication is that the more excited he gets, the more Southern he sounds.)
(Replaced dead link.) and his accent is so perfectly Classical Southern! However, I had accidentally marked him as being from Greenville, Alabama instead of Greenville, Mississippi. The latter is a bit more surprising, since it is outside of the general Classical Southern area.
However, in listening again to that clip, I realized that Shirley was partly right: in that clip he is to do some kind of western farmer accent, but he is doing a very bad job of it: his ENE features keep bleeding through. Even so, certain words, like “about”, do not have ENE vowels at all.
(Sent in by Blake Bond. Thanks!) Wonderful! This pushes the Inland South boundary north. says that Stockton is known as “Where the South Begins”, and the dialect confirms this. (Of the four deputies, the last two are clearly Inland, the second is clearly Southern, though he doesn’t happen to use any diagnostic words for Inland, and the first is a bit ambivalent, though clearly Southern on some words.)
() Powers, on the other hand, lived his entire youth in Charlestown, but even so, his pronunciation of the vowel in words like “father” and “park” is more like JFK than it is Boston, as contributor Bryant Garrigus has pointed out.
, , (Replaced dead link for second video.) He only lived in Boston until the age of ten, and then spent most of the remainder of his youth outside the state (see ), and as a result, though he does have a very definite dialect, he is not really a good example of a Boston accent, as contributor Bryant Garrigus has pointed out, especially in his pronunciation of the vowel in words like “father” and “park”, which he pronounces more like Greater New York City, though some of his other vowels are closer to Boston.
() The curl-coil merger is not dead! This guy clearly says instead of for “work”, and uses instead of in several other words also, and most of his become d or t. This is quite different from his fellow band member Frankie Valli, who is modern middle class.
This was one of his early ads, before his handlers eradicated much of his Southern accent. Tidewater is also clearly heard. (His clip is at 2:30-3:00.) (This link has been removed, which is unfortunate, since it was the only one of its kind that I have found.)
(Replaced link: the original link sent in by Kathy Villarreal in 2011, , is no longer available to the public.) Speculation about bigfoot using drugs? Whatever…