Some of the most ambitious versions of diagnostic machine-learning algorithms seek to integrate natural-language processing (permitting them to read a patient’s medical records) and an encyclopedic knowledge of medical conditions gleaned from textbooks, journals, and medical databases. Both I.B.M.’s Watson Health, headquartered in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and DeepMind, in London, hope to create such comprehensive systems. I watched some of these systems operate in pilot demonstrations, but many of their features, especially the deep-learning components, are still in development.
Thrun, Esteva, and Kuprel then widened the study to include twenty-five dermatologists, and this time they used a gold-standard “test set” of roughly two thousand biopsy-proven images. In almost every test, the machine was more sensitive than doctors: it was less likely to miss a melanoma. It was also more specific: it was less likely to call something a melanoma when it wasn’t. “In every test, the network outperformed expert dermatologists,” the team concluded, in a report published in Nature.
Strokes are typically asymmetrical. The blood supply to the brain branches left and right and then breaks into rivulets and tributaries on each side. A clot or a bleed usually affects only one of these branches, leading to a one-sided deficit in a part of the brain. As the nerve cells lose their blood supply and die, the tissue swells subtly. On a scan, the crisp borders between the anatomical structures can turn hazy. Eventually, the tissue shrinks, trailing a parched shadow. But that shadow usually appears on the scan several hours, or even days, after the stroke, when the window of intervention has long closed. “Before that,” Lignelli-Dipple told me, “there’s just a hint of something on a scan”—the premonition of a stroke.
The above evidence leads me to conclude that sexuality is almost certainly a result of both nature and nurture and that one’s biology itself cannot be the singular cause for the individual being homosexual or heterosexual. It seems to be due to a mix of factors including the persons biology and genetic structure, as was suggested by Williams (1993) and the environment the person is brought up in and they are exposed to according to the social learning theory. Bandura (1977). However, according to the above evidence it seems of better judgement to suggest that the sexuality of a person is far more dependent on their nurture than their nature as nature suggests human need for procreation which does not leave a place for homosexuality as being biologically determined.
However the results of the two above studies are from conclusive. 46% is not a high enough percentage in genetically related individuals to claim a homosexual gene, LeVay’s study was even less reliable as it turned out all of his homosexual participants had died from AIDs, this could have been a major factor in the difference in brain sizes. On the opposite side of the nature scale is the work of Buss (1998) (as cited in Peterson and Hyde 2010) which suggests that humans – females especially are naturally tuned to procreation, suggesting that heterosexuality is biologically determined.
Nurture Mario Puzo’s, Omerta, reflects the theory of Thomas Hobbes In the state of nature, where the theory states, that in the state of nature“…no account of time; no arts; no letters; no society; and which is worst of all, continual fear, and danger of violent death; and the life of man, solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short.”(The Modern Age: Ideas In Western Civilization, Page 37-30) In Peter Cary’s, True History of the Kelly Gang, which conveys the theory of Jean-Jacques Rousseau, “Man is born free; and everywhere he is in chains....
The debate of nature versus nurture had been dated back to the time of Greek philosophers like Plato and Aristotle (Crooks & Stein, 1991). In this context, according to Feldman (1997), nature means the genetic influence on the individual’s behavior. In relation to that, nurture means the effect the environment has on that individual, for example influence of parents or friends. The purpose of the nature-nurture debate is to explain the effect of genetic influence and the environment on the development of human trait and behavior (Crooks & Stein, 1991).
The history of nature-nurture debate started off with famous philosophers like John Locke and Jean Jacques Rousseau (Feldman, 1997). John Locke believed that human behavior is solely influenced by nurture. By this is meant that human were born with an empty brain and we learnt and developed through the experiences in life (Myers, 2000). In contrast, Jean Jacques Rousseau suggested that human development was due to individual’s genetic factors which means that human trait and behavior is more or less develop the moment of birth (Feldman, 1997). In the present time, psychologists share the same thinking that both nature and nurture interdependently rely on each other in human development (Westen, 2002). Clearly it can be seen that the concept of the debate had changed. Now, psychologists are more interested in to what extend can genetic factors and the environment, affect the development of human trait and behavior (Feldman, 1997).
In the support of the nature-nurture debate, psychologists used the studies of twins. There are two types of twins, identical twins and fraternal twins. Identical twins are from the same fertilized egg of the mother and they share the same genes as each other ( E pg 62). In addition, fraternal twins are from different egg cells and they do not share the same genes. In other words, identical twins share 100 percent of their genetic contents and fraternal twins share 50 percent of the same content (Wortman, Loftus & Weaver, 1999). For example, in the study of a genetic based disorder, schizophrenia, identical twins are rated four times higher in getting the disorder than fraternal twins (Neil, 2001). From just the studies of these two types of twins, researchers could only estimate the degree of environmental influence on behavior. So in order for researchers to find out the extent of genetic influence on human behavior, identical twins of the same genetics but were raised in different environment are used.
Every person in this world has their own distinctive personality and behavior. People may wonder why an individual may act the way they do. Thus psychologists had put this into a study of whether an individual’s behaviors are caused by hereditary or the environment. This study is known as the nature-nurture debate. This essay will discuss the nature-nurture debate in relation to how it influences the human traits and behavior focusing on twin and adoption studies. Furthermore the essay will also discuss how hereditary and the environment influences on the behavior of intelligence base on twin and adoption studies.
The Nature-Nurture debate is a long running psychological debate. One which is still greatly of interest in matters of, behaviour, child development and even what makes a criminal. For the purpose of this essay I shall focus on one representative argument in the nature-nurture debate, this being sexuality. The belief of sexuality being a factor of Nature or Nurture will be discussed through the Psychological Levels discussed in Psychology: the science of mind and behaviour (2nd Ed) 2012. These being biological (Evoluntionary Psychology), Environmental (Behaviourism) and Social (Social Psychologists).
Evolutionary Psychology began with Charles Darwin upon the publication of his book ‘The Origin of the Species’ in 1859. Since then Evolutionary Psychology has only advanced. Around the time of Darwin’s work, Mendel (1855-68) was working on understanding genetics, he proposed that there were two of each gene given to a person by their mother and their father. This theory was later expanded to its fullest for by Watson and Crick in the 1950’s with an understanding of Chromosomes and Hormones creating DNA.