There is much to be learned about improving instruction by examining initiatives within the U.S. that provide educators with the best-practice examples they might need. , which grew out of the Noyce Foundation's Silicon Valley Mathematics Initiative, is exemplary as a professional resource for educators passionate about improving students' mathematics learning and performance. This site features tools for educators, problems of the month, classroom videos, Common Core resources, and performance assessment tasks. The Ohio Department of Education developed a (Common Core State Standards) as of June 2010.
Every teacher should have some knowledge on how students learn and be able to connect research to what they do in the classroom. In the , the Deans for Impact (2015) provide a valuable summary of cognitive science research on how learning takes place. In it you'll find cognitive principles and practical implications for the classroom related to six key questions on how students understand new ideas, learn and retain new information, and solve problems; how learning transfers to new situations; what motivates students to learn; and common misconceptions about how students think and learn (About section). Likewise, the Centre for Education Statistics and Evaluation (2017) in New South Wales, Australia elaborates on research that teachers really need to understand about cognitive load theory: what it is, how the human brain learns, the evidence base for the theory, and implications for teaching. For example, when teaching, you'll learn about the effect of using worked examples with novices and learners who gain expertise, the effect of redundancy (unnecessary information might actually lead to instructional failure), the negative effect of split-attention (processing multiple separate sources of information simultaneously in order to understand the material), and the benefit of using supporting visual and auditory modalities.
This assignment uses a grading rubric. Instructors will be using the rubric to grade the assignment; therefore, students should review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the assignment criteria and expectations for successful completion of the assignment.
I completed my student teaching at TR Sanders Elementary in a 2nd grade classroom. The subject was English and the unit was on Author’s Purpose. Here is a list of the Professional Dispositions:
Dispositions are the values, commitments, and professional ethics that influence behaviors toward students, families, colleagues, and communities and which affect student learning and achievement, motivation, and development, as well as the educator’s own professional growth. If sincerely held, dispositions should lead to actions and patterns of professional conduct.
Professional dispositions were reviewed in Module 1 and discussed with your GCU Supervisor throughout this course. Consider how you have demonstrated these dispositions within your student teaching classroom during this course.
The Big Four is just the tip of the iceberg. Teachers also accept responsibility for student success, develop communities of respect, and help students become partners in their own success. They take on three instructional roles: direct instructor, facilitator, and coach (Tomlinson & McTighe, 2006). Their professional responsibilities include reflecting on their own teaching, maintaining accurate records, communicating with families, participating in professional communities, growing professionally in content and pedagogical skills, and showing professionalism with their own integrity and ethical conduct (Danielson, 2007, ch. 1).
The fundamental challenges of the teaching profession are also well-articulated in Connecticut's , which includes "six domains and 46 indicators that identify the foundational skills and competencies that pertain to all teachers, regardless of the subject matter, field or age group they teach" (p. 2). They are useful for teacher preparation programs, beginning teachers, and experienced teachers. For example, among professional responsibilities, the Connecticut Department of Education (2010) indicated "Continually engaging in reflection, self-evaluation and professional development to enhance their understandings of content, pedagogical skills, resources and the impact of their actions on student learning" (p. 10). Collaboration and proactive communication with colleagues, administrators, students, and families are featured elements, as are understanding the legal rights of individuals with disabilities, and the role that race, gender, and culture might have on professional interactions with students, families, and colleagues, and ethical uses of technology.
In Bob Sullo's view (2009) teaching over the past quarter-century has become more professional due to the emergence of a number of "best practices" that have significantly affected curriculum and instruction. "A sampling of innovations includes differentiated instruction, Understanding by Design, the emergence of state standards, the development of curriculum frameworks, scope-and-sequence charts that inform teachers of what to teach and when to teach it, the expanded use of technology in education, active literacy, curriculum mapping, and the proliferation of professional learning communities. Formative assessment informs instruction like never before" (Introduction section). What is striking is that CT4ME includes discussion of many of those innovations throughout this site.
For example, one of the major programs asks teachers to encourage students to make inferences and use analogies, but is silent about how to teach students to assess the inferences they make and the strengths and weaknesses of the analogies they use.
Thus, teachers are challenged to know and communicate subject matter; to design curriculum, instruction, and assessments; to be knowledgeable about diversestudent populations, to be knowledgeable about effective uses of data (e.g., see by Daniel Venables) and technology, to conduct action research to improve their practice, toimplement existing research, and to be learner-centered in their approach. On top of all this is the need to continually grow in the profession, maintain sanity, minimize stress, learn from mistakes, and let us not forget--prepare students for standardized testing.
This enumeration suggests the broad base for expertise in teaching but conceals the complexities, uncertainties and dilemmas of the work. The formal knowledge teachers rely on accumulates steadily, yet provides insufficient guidance in many situations. Teaching ultimately requires judgment, improvisation, and conversation about means and ends. Human qualities, expert knowledge and skill, and professional commitment together compose excellence in this craft. (NBPTS, 2002, p. 2, What Teachers Should Know section, para. 3).