With the region continuing to face rising demands for education from a growing population, the report says 32 million more children were of primary school age in 2011 than in 2000. Sub-Saharan Africa is also home to more than half the world’s out-of-school children of primary school age (32 million out of 57 million) and it has the highest rate worldwide of children leaving school early. Slightly more than two out of five students who started primary school in 2010 will not make it to the last grade.
Accelerated efforts are also needed to continue gains in combating HIV and to build on the momentum in fighting malaria through the use of insecticide-treated nets. The region had the world’s highest child mortality rate and the second highest prevalence of underweight children among all regions in 2011. That year, one in nine children died before age five, more than 16 times the average for developed regions, accounting for 3.4 million of the 6.9 million under-five deaths worldwide. The pace of change must accelerate even further if the MDG target is to be met, the report says, and efforts must concentrate on countries with the highest number of under-five deaths, such as Nigeria, and countries with the highest under-five death rates, such as Sierra Leone and Somalia, with rates of 180 or more per 1,000 live births.
The Millennium Development Goals Report 2013, launched today by UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon in Geneva, finds that sub-Saharan Africa has made steady progress for its 1 billion people, with fewer mothers and children dying, growing numbers of women in power and broadened access to health and education services, alongside sharp drops in malaria and tuberculosis deaths.
For over 75 years, Finland’s expectant mothers have been given a box by the government. It’s like a starter kit of clothes, sheets and toys that can even be used as a bed, and it has helped Finland achieve one of the world’s lowest infant mortality rates.
The whole area of HRR and its clinical implications is a subject of current investigation, but it is well established that HRR is a strong predictor of both cardiovascular-related and all-cause mortality in healthy adults.
Some countries despite their huge economic growth failed to improve health and registered higher mortality in their population because of widened socioeconomic gap.
In his welcome address the Director of UNIC Lagos, Ronald Kayanja, represented by the Centre’s National Information Officer, Oluseyi Soremekun, reiterated that women remained a priority group for the United Nations and reassured that the organisation would continue to make a positive difference to the lives of millions of people especially in terms of vaccinating children; distributing food aid; sheltering refugees; deploying peacekeepers; protecting the environment; seeking peaceful resolution of disputes and supporting democratic elections, gender equality, human rights and the rule of law.
Socioeconomic status (SES) underlies three major determinants of health: health care, environmental exposure, and health behavior. In addition, chronic stress associated with lower SES may also increase morbidity and mortality. Reducing SES disparities in health will require policy initiatives addressing the components of socioeconomic status (income, education, and occupation) as well as the pathways by which these affect health. Lessons for U.S. policy approaches are taken from the Acheson Commission in England, which was charged with reducing health disparities in that country.
When it comes to achieving – reducing maternal mortality ratio by 75 percent and granting universal access to reproductive health by 2015 – Nigeria is fighting an uphill battle. Here are some quick facts to illustrate just how staggering maternal healthcare (or lack thereof) is in Nigeria:
Between 2000 and 2008, the combination of improved immunization coverage and the opportunity for second-dose immunizations led to a 78% drop in measles deaths worldwide. But the numbers are still alarming: nearly 22,000 children are dying each day. 1 in 14 children die before the age of 5 in poor countries, compared with 1 in 147 in high-income countries. Recent research clearly shows that half of these children who die each year could be saved by vaccines, antibiotics, micronutrient supplementation, insecticide-treated bed nets, breastfeeding practices, and improved family care. Child mortality can be reduced by: expanding immunization programs; strengthening national health care systems; supporting better nutrition for children and mothers; investing in improved reproductive health; and making infrastructure investments. For this, a true partnership between governments, international organizations, civil society, and private sector is required.
The program, meaning “Safe Motherhood” in the Yoruba language, was launched in 2009 by Nigeria’s Ondo State government and has already seen major progress in diminishing maternal deaths in the region. The success of is often attributed to Governor Olusegun Mimiko, the Ondo State health commissioner and brains behind the program. The program began with extensive surveys at the community level, allowing programmers to gain a better understanding of why Nigeria suffered from such a high maternal mortality rate. Investigators discovered that inevitably became the backbone of the program:
critically analyses one country’s (Chad) progress towards on of the Millenium Development Goals (MDG4: reduce child mortality rate: cut the under-five mortality rate by 75%).
1. one country + one health issue drawn from the one of the millenium development goals
2. discusses the millenium development goals in general, and outlines the specific goal and targets being addressed
3. analyses using the Sociological Imagination Template (historical, cultural, structural and critical factors)