John Stuart Mill John Stuart Mill was born in London on May 20, 1806. He was educated entirely by his father, James Mill, and was deliberately shielded from other boys of his age "He was never permitted to meet a boy of his own age, so that he should not realize how different from other boys he was. He never played cricket. He was a grown-up en miniature feeling a grown man's responsibility, and more, for country and humanity ? (John Stuart Mill the Man 15). He was subjected to intellectual discipline. As a result of this system, he believed this gave him an advantage. Mill recognized later in life that his father's system had the fault in his practical and emotional life, which has been neglected. James Mill's method was designed to make his son's mind a first-rate thinking machine, so that the boy might become a utilitarian preacher. Around the age of fifteen or sixteen, John read Bentham in which the principles of the utility was understood and applied. This gave him unity to his conception of all things "I now had opinions; a creed, a doctrine, a philosophy; in one among the best senses of the word, a religion; the inculcation and diffusion of which could be made the principle outward purpose of a life."(John Stuart Mill). Soon afterwards he formed a small "Utilitarian Society ? and adopted his father's philosophical and political views. He took a position under his father in the India Office had secured him against the misfortune of having to depend on literary work for his livelihood; and he found that office-work left him ample leisure for the pursuit of his wider interests, Utilitarianism.
What is Utilitarianism??? The principle of utility states that an action is "right if it produces as much or more of an increase in happiness of all affected by it than any alternative action, and wrong if it does not ?. Its basis is the idea that pleasure and happiness is valuable, that pa
Scientists have shown that the practice of factory farming is an increasingly urgent danger to human health, the environment, and nonhuman animal welfare. For all these reasons, moral agents must consider alternatives. Vegetarian food production, humane food animal farming, and in-vitro meat production are all explored from a variety of ethical perspectives, especially utilitarian and rights-based viewpoints, all in the light of current U.S. and European initiatives in the public and private sectors. It is concluded that vegetarianism and potentially in-vitro meat production are the best-justified options.
This is the story of how I discovered that a student could learn creativity by imitating me. I was working with a girl while she was drawing animals. I asked her about her recent visit to a zoo. I asked her which animals she liked. I asked her which animal she would like to draw for me. As she drew, I asked her many open-ended questions. If the animal lacked ears, I did not ask her to draw ears, but I asked her what the animal listens to. When she drew a zebra, it did not have any stripes, but I did not tell her that it needs stripes. I did not ask her if it needed stripes. My questions were less direct because I wanted creative thinking. I asked how to tell whether it was horse or not. She seemed to ignore this question and kept drawing other things without putting any stripes on her zebra. She responded to most other questions by adding more and more details that she remembered. As a preschooler, none of this was realistic looking, but to her it all made good sense as she explained it to me while she was drawing. It was clear to me that she was creating an original drawing based on her memories. However, I could not think of a question that would get her to remember and create stripes without actually mentioning stripes in my question. I was resigned to allow her to draw a zebra without stripes rather than reminding her in a direct way that a zebra should have stripes. As she finished the drawing, I asked her if she forgot to draw anything on her zebra? She looked at it and was very pleased with it. She went to place it with her things to show her mother. Suddenly, she came running back to me saying, "Silly me, I forgot the stripes!" She immediately went to work drawing strips on her zebra while murmuring, "Silly me." I learned that memory and ideas sometimes take more time. Time, patience, and persistence are parts of the creative process.
U S Law and Animal Experimentation: A Critical Primer Even proponents of medical research on animals can see obvious This website is an onlineReplace animal testing, and that animals are so before animal testing The World Medical Medical Center's animal research
Oncestudents tackle an assignment creatively, they willnaturally becurious to see what others have done related to theproblemthey have struggled to solve. When studying a master, they willnotonly be interested in seeing the end product, but they will be open tolearn about the master's creative methods. We do not only study thelookofthe work, we try to figure out why the artist did it that way. Inthis kind of problem solving, students find historical evidencefromresearch to confirm ideas about the creative methods used. If wewant to foster student creativity,
Art teachers need to help children begin to make visualcomparisons and represent them in their drawings. I use lots ofopen questions that remind children to observe more carefully. Ido not draw in front of the students because it encourages them to copymy drawing and they still do not learn to observe. I go over to thething being observed and carefully point out how to notice things. Iask them to practice drawing in the air while observing beforecommitting pencil to paper. Students are asked to notice contour, size,texture, value gradations, proportions, and every kind of relationshipin the thing, person, or animal observed. I ask them to use a pencil atarm's length as a sighting device to compare sizes, angles, and so on.I often encourage the use of touch, and include smell, taste, and soundas motivation and when experiencing the world. I avoid copy work,formulas, and drawing tricks. I do not give answers, butencourage experimentation and exploration to find answers. Iprovide aides to observation including to frame compositions and (a square of tag board with the pencil through it) to to hide the paperand encourage looking at the thing being observed. When mistakes areobvious to the student, I encourage another line before erasing themistake. "Don't nix it until you fix it." Sometimes three or four triesare needed, but this is learning. The purpose of practice is to make iteasy and to make it better.
All submitted manuscripts received by the Editorial Office will be checked by a professional in-house Managing Editor to determine whether it is properly prepared and whether the manuscript follows the ethical policies of the journal, including those for human and animal experimentation. Manuscripts that do not fit the journals ethical policy will be rejected before peer-review. Manuscripts that are not properly prepared will be returned to the authors for revision and resubmission. After these checks, the Managing Editor will consult the journals’ Editor-in-Chief or the Guest Editor (or an Editorial Board member in case of a conflict of interest) to determine whether the manuscript fits the scope of the journal and whether it is scientifically sound. No judgment on the significance or potential impact of the work will be made at this stage. Reject decisions at this stage will be verified by the Editor-in-Chief.
The practical problem of ensuring that human experimentation be done inan ethical way is extremely difficult. On one hand, there are already toomany artificial burdens and impediments to medical research (e.g., lackof funding, inadequate time, obsolete facilities, members of review committeeswho have no understanding of research, repressive legislation). But we alsocan not ignore the fact that a number of innocent people in the USA havebeen harmed in the name of medical research and this abuse of patients muststop.
The formation of a permanent bioethics council highlighted that scientists and doctors were no longer the sole arbiters of ethical expertise in their respective fields. Following Warnock's appointment as chair of the government inquiry in 1982, bioethics quickly became the norm in regulatory commissions and public debate. The marked growth and influence of what the Guardian called the ‘ethics industry’ appeared bound to the widespread demand for oversight of science and medicine in the 1980s. As we have seen, politicians and public figures like Ian Kennedy endorsed it as a way ensuring public accountability, while many doctors and scientists promoted it to colleagues as a means of protecting research. And belief in its value was consolidated by the way that new external arbiters, like Mary Warnock, positioned themselves as vital intermediaries between these two views: promising to represent the public interest and legitimate research.
I suspect that very few physicians deliberately devise an ethicalplan. My guess is that physicians are zealous about doing the experimentand they genuinely believe (perhaps correctly) that the result will be muchmore important to humanity than the pain, suffering, and possible deathof a few experimental subjects. This kind of justification calls to mindthe cliché, "You can't make omelets without breaking eggs."On careful, philosophical analysis, which the physicians do do,this justification crumbles for several reasons. First, eggs are propertythat can legitimately be used as the owner wishes, but a human being hasa fundamental right of autonomy and each patient has the right to decidewhat is done with his/her body. As a consequence of this principle, a nonconsensualtouching is a battery, a legal wrong. Second, stressing the good resultsfrom medical research is simply an example of "the ends justifies themeans", which is a bogus philosophical rational.
At the same time, the political demand for external scrutiny of professions fulfilled Warnock's belief that philosophers should apply themselves to practical matters. And once selected as chair of the government inquiry, she became a strong advocate of what became known as ‘bioethics’: criticizing biomedical paternalism and extolling the benefits of external oversight. Like Ian Kennedy, her rhetoric was not simply a reaction to the growing calls for oversight in this period, but was fundamentally constitutive of it. This offers strong evidence that the principal figures in this history generated or perpetuated the demand for bioethics as much as they responded to it. This hardly comes as a surprise. As have outlined, bioethics had, and continues to have, obvious allure to philosophers looking to tackle substantive issues and play a role in shaping their culture; and its appeal is heightened in an increasingly competitive funding climate, where research councils prioritize practical relevance (2007, p. 32). Those who engage with bioethics no doubt draw encouragement from the considerable benefits that Warnock and Kennedy reaped from their early groundwork: both went on to serve on further regulatory commissions, were honoured by the government, and remain respected authorities on the ethics of science and medicine.