The wars engendered an era of technological, cultural, and demographic changes in China. Battles between the Song and Jin brought about the introduction of various . The siege of in 1132 was the first recorded appearance of the , an early ancestor of . There were also reports of battles fought with primitive gunpowder bombs like the incendiary or the exploding , , and other related weapons. In northern China, the Jurchen tribes were the ruling minority of an empire that was predominantly inhabited by former subjects of the Northern Song. Jurchen migrants settled in the conquered territories and assimilated with the local culture. The Jin government instituted a centralized imperial bureaucracy modeled on previous Chinese dynasties, basing their legitimacy on . Song refugees from the north resettled in southern China. The north was the cultural center of China, and its conquest by the Jin diminished the international stature of the Song dynasty. The Southern Song, however, quickly returned to economic prosperity, and trade with the Jin was lucrative despite decades of warfare. The capital of the Southern Song, Hangzhou, expanded into a major city for commerce.
China becomes united again under the rule of Wendi, and the Sui dynasty begins.
The Grand Canal was built during the reign of Wendi's son.
The return of the examination system.
Begins progress toward Chinese urbanization.
The Sui were short lived, while the Tang lasted almost 10 times longer than the Sui.
The Sui were much less militaristic than the Tang Dynasty.
The Sui controlled much less area than was during the Tang Dynasty.
The Sui lasted more than 10 times shorter than the Song Dynasty.
The Sui and Song Dynasty both had improvements to the shcolar gentry class.
The Song Dynasty and Sui Dynasty had very small borders relative to other time periods in China, at least temporarily.
Before the Tang Dynasty was in place, the Sui ruler Yangdi was rebelled at by Li Yuan, who is the Duke of Tang.
By the late Ming dynasty, three Jurchen tribes were known, Jianzhou or Chien-chou (Jianzhou Prefecture), Haixi or Hai-hsi (east of the sea or the Huron Lake), & Yeren or Yeh-jen (the uncivilized people).
The territories in the Huron Lake area was named Haixi-wei [West-of-lake Garrison] by Ming Dynasty, and the Ye-he tribe was the biggest of the four sub-tribes in that area.
Similar borders to what we have today in China.
Buddhism and reemergence of Confucianism.
The Tang and Sui had brought back Chinese values such as Confucianism.
The Tang brought back the examination system, while the Sui did not have many cultural achievements.
The Tang Dynasty was militaristic while the Song Dynasty was very pacifistic and cultural.
The Tang Dynasty and the Song Dynasty both had Neo-Confucian movements.
The Tang Dynasty was the peak of Buddhism while the Song Dynasty persecuted Buddhism for all of the Dynasty.
Following the fall of the Tang Dynasty, we have 50 years of civil war and decentralization, until 960 when the Song Dynasty comes into power.
MING SHI copied Mao's ridiculous passage on the massacre, which yielded a deathtoll of 600 million people in about one quarter to one third of the province which possessed over 260,000 households or over 3.1 million during the late Ming Dynasty time period (i.e., a census from the 6th year of the Wanli Era).
Zhang Xianzhong thereafter sent the troops to pacifying the counties and prefectures but lost control of the perimeters to the remnant Ming Dynasty generals by the spring of 1645.
The Hou family belonged to the late Ming Dynasty literary and political group called the Dong-lin-dang (east forest party) which was noted for defying eunuch Wei Zhongxian and the eunuch party, while Hou Fangyu himself, counted as one of the four distinguished young literary gentelmen of the late Ming Dynasty or one of the three early Manchu literary gentlemen, was a member of Zhang Fu's Fu-she Society.
Wu Weiye did not specify whether it was Li Zicheng's rebels or the Manchus who were responsible for the dissipation of the millions of volumes of books --which still carried the seals and inks of the Jurchens when they sacked the northern Soong capital city of Bianliang (Kaifeng, Henan), marked the imperial books for shipping to today's Peking, to be repossessed by the Mongols who never bothered to open the seal to check on the books after the Mongols defeated the Jurchens, and to be re-possessed by the Ming Chinese after Ming Dynasty General Xu Da (Xu Zhongshan) expelled the Mongols from Dadu (Peking, Hebei).
Wu Weiye, who wrote the satarical poem against Wu San'gui in regards to betraying the country over woman Chen Yuanyuan, further talked about the destruction to China's classics and culture during the Jiashen Cataclysm, stating that China's classics in the imperial Zhishen-ku vault, which were the Soong dynasty rebuilt collection after going through what Sui Dynasty minister Niu Hong called by the five incidents of book burning and destruction and what the later Ming Dynasty scholar Hu Yinglin added by ten including the post-South-North-dynasties incidents, were all lost.
(At about this time, the Manchu, per Li Zhiting, dispatched secret emissary to Li Zicheng for a concerted fight against the Ming court, which Li Zicheng flatly declined.)
In Jan of 1644, Li Zicheng declared the Era of Yongchang and the dynastic name of Da-shun in Xi'an.
MING SHI (i.e., History of the Ming Dynasty), edited by the Manchu Qing historians, claimed that Zhang Xianzhong slaughtered 3/4th of Sichuan's population.
Zhang Xianzhong & Li Zicheng's Rebellion
In northern China, Ming Dynasty was already devastated by the rebellion led by Li Zicheng and Zhang Xianzhong.