According to Strong et al. (2004), testing practices should also aim tomeasure knowledge in all four dimensions. Teachers should be aware thattexts and their accompanying tests, however, tend to emphasize only the masteryand understanding styles of learning. To differentiate instruction, teachers can:
Investigatively, the learner might not have seen visual representations of the concept, such as the rectangle/area model for multiplication presented in the teaching model for multiplying decimals at Education Place (see: ) or at LearnZillion ().
What's classroom management all about? Classroom management plays a significant role in effective teaching and ultimate achievement of learners. It occurs at two levels--what can be seen in the classroom during actual contact with learners, and what goes on "behind-the-scenes" outside of the classroom. The latter would typically include planning and follow-up activities that teachers do in connection with classroom management.
In terms of enhancing a culture of learning, technology can also assist teachers in planning and managing tasks they typically do, including communicating with parents. Teachers can use online calendars and to-do lists and online lesson planning tools. Rather than making multiple copies of class handouts, they can post a single copy to a class website. They can use online grade books and grading tools. Technology enables them to create assessments with a variety of apps, and to provide individualized feedback to electronic documents/assignments submitted by their learners. They can even use technology to manage the noise level in the classroom.
at Stanford University promotes a growth mindset with teaching ideas, a searchable database of tasks, and videos (e.g., number talks, brain science, enquiry based learning, etc.).
In , Mary Helen Immordino-Yang (2016) linked motivation to emotions, stating "for school-based learning to have any hope of motivating students, of producing deep understanding, or of transferring into real-world skills--all hallmarks of meaningful learning, and all essential to producing informed, skilled, ethical, and reflective adults--we need to find ways to leverage the emotional aspects of learning in education" (p. 18). Further, "Even in academic subjects that are traditionally considered unemotional, such as physics, engineering, or math, deep understanding depends on making emotional connections between concepts" (p. 19). She proposed three strategies that teachers might use to help learners develop emotional thought in classroom learning:
Everyone, regardless of ability, will most likely encounter frustrations and failures at some point in life. Their motivation, learning, and success will be affected by well they are able to respond to such experiences. Saying "you can do this" is important, but how should educators "teach the virtues of grit--tenacity, perseverance, and the ability to never give up" (Hoerr, 2013, Why Grit? section). Thomas Hoerr address this issue in and provides six steps of teaching for grit.
In fact, students are internally driven by the needs built into their genetic code, and they behave in a never-ending quest to satisfy the universal needs to connect, be powerful, make choices, and have fun in a safe, secure environment. Our success as teachers is largely determined by how effective we are at creating learning environments where students can meet their needs by immersing themselves in the academic tasks we provide. (Sullo, 2009, Ch. 3, Basic Needs section)
What are components of effective classroom management? Marzano, Marzano, and Pickering (2003) conducted a meta-analysis of 100 reports on this issue, addressing four general components of effective classroom management: rules and procedures, disciplinary interventions, teacher-student relationships, and mental set. This latter refers to an ability to remain emotionally objective and businesslike and "to identify and quickly act on potential behavioral problems" (p. 75). They found "on the average, students in classes where effective management techniques are employed have achievement scores that are 20 percentile points higher than students in classes where effective management techniques are not employed" (p. 10).
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And in terms of setting high expectations for all, Robert Marzano (2010) reminded educators that this is easier said than done. It's the "teachers' behaviors toward students [that] are much more important than their expectations," as students "make inferences on the basis of these behaviors" (pp. 82-83). Students become easily aware of differences, as "teachers tend to make less eye contact, smile less, make less physical contact, and engage in less playful or light dialogue" with low-expectancy students. They also pose fewer and less challenging questions to them, and delve into their answers less deeply and reward them for less vigorous responses" (p. 83). The key to overcome this is for teachers to be aware of their own behaviors: identify students as early as possible for whom they have low expectations, identify their similarities and differential treatment of them, and then set out to change and treat low-expectancy and high-expectancy students the same.
How does the classroom environment affect motivation? In such an environment just described, Sullo (2009) indicated that there is no fear factor, which some teachers themselves invoke just by their tone and what they say in reaction to learners' deeds and actions. Sometimes teachers are not even aware of the affect their sarcasm and negativism might have on motivation. In a culture of success, the teacher's message should be "This is important. You can do it. I won't give up on you" (Ch. 2, Getting Started section). Teachers know how to internally motivate learners, rather than relying on external motivators as coercions and rewards/punishments that do not work for the majority of learners.