Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality - Springer Freud's Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality ...
Three Essays On The Theory Of Sexuality PDF - Free Ebook Download Three Essays On The Theory Of Sexuality PDF ...
Neumann, C. S., Vitacco, M. J., Hare, R. D., & Wupperman, P. (2005). Reconstruing the "reconstruction" of psychopathy: A comment on Cooke, Michie, Hart, and Clark. (6), 624-640. doi: 10.1521/pedi.2005.19.6.624 In this comment on Cooke, Michie, Hart, and Clark (2004) we highlight critical problems in the estimation of parameters for their hierarchical three-factor model of psychopathy, as assessed with the Hare Psychopathy Checklist (PCL-R; Hare, 1991, 2003), and their interpretation of these factors as causally related to socially deviant behavior. We argue that there is nothing "causal" about a model in which cross-sectional data are used to assert that antisocial tendencies are consequences of other more fundamental psychopathic traits. We present an equally viable model, based on the PCL-R four-factor solution (Hare, 2003), in which antisocial tendencies play a fundamental role in the construct of psychopathy, consistent with previous research and clinical tradition.
Munoz, L. C., Khan, R., & Cordwell, L. (2011). Sexually coercive tactics used by university students: a clear role for primary psychopathy. (1), 28-40. doi:10.1521/pedi.2011.25.1.28 Current research suggests that people with psychopathic traits engage in sexual coercion as an alternative mating strategy. Research overlooks the relation between psychopathic traits and coercive behavior in male and female samples that engage in dating quite frequently. Male and female university students reported on their current relationship styles and their use of minor and severe sexually coercive tactics. Results indicate that primary psychopathy (using the Levenson's SRPS), but not secondary psychopathy, predicts the use of all measures of sexual coercion for both females and males, although males were more likely to exploit an intoxicated partner than females. Additionally, females with high levels of primary psychopathy were more likely to use physical forms of coercion. The findings show that the primary psychopathy features (callousness, charm, and selfishness) predict a shortterm mating strategy that focuses on gaining sex through minor forms of coercion and manipulation.
Meloy, J. R. (2000). The nature and dynamics of sexual homicide: An integrative review. (1), 1-22. doi:10.1016/S1359-1789(99)00006-3 The author reviews the definitions, epidemiology, evolving research, offender, and offense characteristics of sexual homicide, a form of intentional killing that occurs in less than 1% of homicides in the United States. Although the extant research is limited by very few comparative studies, repetitive use of small, nonrandom samples, retrospective data, no prospective studies, and the absence of any predictive statistical analyses, the yield over the past 100 years is impressive. The author advances a clinical typology of sexual murderers. The first group of compulsive sexual murderers leaves behind organized crime scenes and are usually diagnosed with sexual sadism and antisocial/narcissistic personality disorders. They are chronically emotionally detached, often primary psychopaths, are autonomically hyporeactive, and the majority experience no early trauma. The second group of catathymic sexual murderers leave behind disorganized crime scenes and are usually diagnosed with a mood disorder and various personality disorders that may include schizoid and avoidant traits. They are hungry for attachment, only moderately psychopathic, are autonomically hyperreactive, and have a history of physical and/or sexual trauma. . . . This review has focused on the definitions, epidemiology, evolving research, and offender characteristics of sexual homicide, a rare but very disturbing form of intentional killing.
Widom, C. S., Czaja, S. J., & Paris, J. (2009). A prospective investigation of borderline personality disorder in abused and neglected children followed up into adulthood. (5), 433-446. doi:10.1521/pedi.2009.23.5.433 Child abuse has been implicated as a risk factor for borderline personality disorder (BPD), yet few prospective longitudinal studies exist. The current study examined whether 500 individuals with documented cases of childhood physical and sexual abuse and neglect were at elevated risk of BPD in adulthood, compared to 396 demographically similar control children. Results indicated that significantly more abused and/or neglected children overall met criteria for BPD as adults, compared to controls, as did physically abused and neglected children. Having a parent with alcohol/drug problems and not being employed full-time, not being a high school graduate, and having a diagnosis of drug abuse, major depressive disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder were predictors of BPD and mediated the relationship between childhood abuse/neglect and adult BPD. These results call attention to a heightened risk of BPD in physically abused and neglected children and the need to consider multiple pathways to BPD.
Standage, K. F. (1979). The use of Schneider's typology for the diagnosis of personality disorders—an examination of reliability. (3), 238-242. doi:10.1192/bjp.135.3.238 Schneider's typology of the personality disorders is described briefly. Three psychiatrists made diagnoses on two sets of patients, both of which contained one example of each type. The diagnoses were made with the help of a glossary and based upon the examination of clinical summaries and audio-recordings. Values of two reliability coefficients showed considerable variation between types. High reliability was found for Schneider's asthenic, explosive, depressive and affectionless types. Low reliability was found for the fanatic, labile and hyperthymic types. The insecure and attention-seeking types were overused. Some possible causes of this variation are discussed.
Stadtland, C., Kleindienst, N., Kroner, C., Eidt, M., & Nedopil, N. (2005). Psychopathic traits and risk of criminal recidivism in offenders with and without mental disorders. (1), 89-97. The aim of this study was to compare the long-term predictive validity of the PCL-R for offenders with severe mental disorders, substance abuse and personality disorders and for offenders without mental disorders. The sample consisted of 262 perpetrators who were assessed for their criminal responsibilities. The PCL-R was assessed retrospectively from file data. Participants were prospectively followed-up for an average observation period of 58.6 months (range-138 months), with the first entry into the official criminal records of the National Conviction Registry serving as the endpoint. PCL-R scores were significantly different between the three diagnostic groups. The highest PCL-R scores were found in offenders with personality disorders and/or substance abuse. In all three groups the PCL-R predicted violent, but not non-violent reoffenses with moderate predictive validity. The PCL-R is therefore a moderately strong predictor for violent reoffenses in offenders with mental disorders, personality disorders and/or substance abuse and for those offenders without mental disorders, but failed to predict non-violent criminal recidivism.
Skeem, J. L., & Petrila, J. (2004). Juvenile psychopathy: Informing the debate. (1), 1-4. doi: 10.1002/bsl.580 A recent explosion of interest in the topic of "juvenile psychopathy" has been accompanied by sharp debate about whether the construct of psychopathy can validly and should be applied to youth. In the second consecutive special issue of Behavioral Sciences and the Law devoted to the topic of juvenile psychopathy, we present additional empirical articles to inform this debate. As noted in the first issue (Petrila & Skeem, 2003), three underlying controversies seem paramount: (i) the validity of extending adult models of psychopathy downward to youth, given patterns of personality development; (ii) the malleability or treatability of psychopathy-like features during youth; and (iii) the ethical and moral appropriateness of assessing psychopathy during youth. This volume contains six articles on juvenile psychopathy focused on three general topics, including the psychometrics of juvenile psychopathy measures; the relationship between psychopathy-like features and treatment progress; and a "road-map" for assessing the validity of psychopathy in youth.
Salekin, R. T. (2002). Psychopathy and therapeutic pessimism: clinical lore or clinical reality? (1), 79-112. doi: 10.1016/S0272-7358(01)00083-6 It is a widely held belief that psychopathic individuals are extremely difficult to treat, if not immune to treatment. This therapeutic pessimism is pervasive and undermines motivation to search for effective modes of intervention for psychopathic individuals. A review of 42 treatment studies on psychopathy revealed that there is little scientific basis for the belief that psychopathy is an untreatable disorder. Three significant problems with regard to the research on the psychopathy-treatment relation cast doubt on strident conclusions that deem the disorder untreatable. First, there is considerable disagreement as to the defining characteristics of psychopathy. Second, the etiology of psychopathy is not well understood. Third, there are relatively few empirical investigations of the psychopathy-treatment relationship and even fewer efforts that follow up psychopathic individuals after treatment. Psychologists are encouraged to investigate the psychopathy-treatment relation from multiple perspectives as well as to conduct long-term follow-up studies to establish a modern view of the psychopathy-treatment relation. . . . It seems clear from the current review that the widely held clinical belief that psychopathy is an untreatable disorder is unwarranted and that conclusions either way for this first generation of research are premature.