b. An anti-communist guerilla movement carried out a long struggle against the Soviet supported government. They were assisted by the United States and Pakistan. The Soviets withdrew after Gorbachev came to power in the USSR.
90-91 NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR DEMOCRACY (NED) AND ITS INTERLOCKING
NET OF IMPOSTOR GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS (IGO) AS INVOLVED IN HAITI
ELECTION. AMERICA'S DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION (ADF), FOUNDED IN 80, AS
TAX-EXEMPT NGO TO OPERATE WORLDWIDE - PROJECTS SUPPORTED BY U.S. AID AND
NED. PROJECTS FOCUSED ON "DEMOCRACY-BUILDING." HAS HAD PROGRAMS IN
NICARAGUA, EL SALVADOR, PHILIPPINES AND HAITI. FUNDED ANTI-SANDINISTA
ACTIVITIES. ITS PRESIDENT IS MICHAEL D. MILLER - WHO SERVED AS AN ADVISOR
FOR W.R. GRACE AND COMPANY AND WAS V.P. OF COUNCIL OF AMERICAS FROM 70-77.
FOUNDED ADF WITH BASILIO LIACURIS, RICHARD SALVATIERRA, JOHN H. BUSH, AND
JACK HELLER. ADF PROJECTS IN HAITI, NICARAGUA, PANAMA - NATIONAL CIVIC
CRUSADE. STUDY BY WORTH COOLEY-PROST, "DEMOCRACY INTERVENTION: A WHO'S WHO
OF NGOS." 4/26/92 5-22
Haiti Competing against 10 comparatively wealthy candidates, leftist priest Jean-Bertrand Aristide captures 68 percent of the vote. After only eight months in power, however, the CIA-backed military deposes him. More military dictators brutalize the country, as thousands of Haitian refugees escape the turmoil in barely seaworthy boats. As popular opinion calls for Aristides return, the CIA begins a disinformation campaign painting the courageous priest as mentally unstable.
In 1996 Richard Perl, Douglas Feith and others of the Institute for Advanced Strategic and Political Studies argued forcefully for the removal of Saddam Hussein.
It called for the use of American forces in a pre-emptive and, if necessary, unilateral approach to achieve a "new American century." This was rejected by Presidents Bush and Clinton who adopted the traditional, pragmatic strategy of containment toward Iraq.
In reality - During the 45 year-period of the Cold War, the Americans and Russians were involved in dozens of "hot wars" around the globe (Korea, Cuba, Vietnam, El Salvador, Honduras, etc.) But because these were not wars in which the U.S. and Soviets were officially at war with one another, each nation could use the Cold War rhetoric to justify their involvement elsewhere.
We lose sight of the facts that our resources are always limited and that these resources; measured not only in terms of economic, financial, and military means, but also political will, must at least match our objectives if we are to be successful.
Since the National Guard didn’t have that many people, they started recruiting farmers who were kicked out because of the new farming system that the Sandinistas started using.
principal rivers, the San Juan, Coco (Wanks), Grande, and Escondido, empty into
The natural resources of Nicaragua are primarily agricultural.
CIA operations follow the same recurring script. First, American business interests abroad are threatened by a popular or democratically elected leader. The people support their leader because he intends to conduct land reform, strengthen unions, redistribute wealth, nationalize foreign-owned industry, and regulate business to protect workers, consumers and the environment. So, on behalf of American business, and often with their help, the CIA mobilizes the opposition. First it identifies right-wing groups within the country (usually the military), and offers them a deal: "We'll put you in power if you maintain a favorable business climate for us." The Agency then hires, trains and works with them to overthrow the existing government (usually a democracy). It uses every trick in the book: propaganda, stuffed ballot boxes, purchased elections, extortion, blackmail, sexual intrigue, false stories about opponents in the local media, infiltration and disruption of opposing political parties, kidnapping, beating, torture, intimidation, economic sabotage, death squads and even assassination. These efforts culminate in a military , which installs a right-wing dictator. The CIA trains the dictators security apparatus to crack down on the traditional enemies of big business, using interrogation, torture and murder. The victims are said to be "communists," but almost always they are just peasants, liberals, moderates, labor union leaders, political opponents and advocates of free speech and democracy. Widespread human rights abuses follow.
MAJOR SMEDLEY BUTLER WHO COMMANDED MARINE LANDING IN NICARAGUA 09 AND 12
SUMMARIZED HIS CAREER BEFORE LEGIONNAIRES CONVENTION: "I SPENT YEARS BEING
A HIGH CLASS MUSCLE MAN FOR BIG BUSINESS, FOR WALL STREET AND THE BANKERS.
IN SHORT I WAS A RACKETEER FOR CAPITALISM. I HELPED PURIFY NICARAGUA FOR
THE INTERNATIONAL BANKING HOUSE OF BROWN BROTHERS IN 02-12. I HELPED MAKE
MEXICO SAFE FOR AMERICAN OIL INTERESTS IN 16. I BROUGHT LIGHT TO DR. FOR
AMERICAN SUGAR INTERESTS IN 16. I HELPED MAKE HAITI AND CUBA A DECENT PLACE
FOR NATIONAL CITY (BANK) BOYS TO COLLECT REVENUE IN. I HELPED IN THE RAPE
OF A HALF A DOZEN CENTRAL AMERICAN REPUBLICS FOR THE BENEFIT OF WALL
STREET." CHOMSKY, N. (1985). TURNING THE TIDE 94-5
In essence, Eisenhower was telling the American people that we had developed a large and powerful defense establishment - a military industrial complex - which comprised an informal alliance of the arms industry, military officers, and members of Congress that could greatly influence government policy. He feared that this informal alliance would lead the country to building unnecessary weapons. This military-industrial complex might inappropriately shape national priorities and dictate the direction of American foreign policy. Thus, he was warning the American people to not let the military-industrial establishment dictate America's actions at home or abroad because such unchecked power would begin to take away the freedoms found in the institutions and principles it was designed to protect.
93 TO LAUNCH DEMOCRACY PROJECTS CLINTON CREATING TWO POSITIONS - ONE IN
STATE DEPT TO BE HEADED BY FORMER COLORADO SENATOR TIMOTHY E. WIRTH, AND
OTHER IN PENTAGON HEADED BY MORTON HALPERIN. ASST SECRETARY FOR HUMAN
RIGHTS AT STATE DEPT FILLED BY JOHN SHATTUCK. JOB TO INCLUDE DIRECTING
DEMOCRATIZATION EFFORT UNDER WIRTH. U.S. TO INVOLVE WORLD BANK AND OTHER
INTERNATIONAL LENDING INSTITUTIONS. MAIN ELEMENTS TO BE INFO AND
EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS AS U.S. NOW EXPERIMENTING WITH IN EASTERN EUROPE SINCE
89 SPREADING MESSAGE OF DEMOCRACY WILL BE JOB OF U.S. INFORMATION AGENCY
(USIA) AND SOME COMBINATIONS OF VOICE OF AMERICA, RADIO FREE EUROPE, RADIO
LIBERTY AND EMBRYONIC RADIO FREE ASIA. SOME PROGRAMS TO BE RUN DIRECTLY BY
USIA OR AID BUT SOME WILL USE NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR DEMOCRACY (NED).
DISCUSSION OF PROBLEM OF HAITI INCLUDES ROLES FOR AMERICAN BAR ASSOCIATION,
THE AFL-CIO, THE U.S. CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. PAST INSTANCES WHERE "NATION
BUILDING" OR "CIVIC ACTION" ONLY SERVED AS U.S. SEAL OF APPROVAL FOR LOCAL
MILITARY REPRESSION AND CORRUPTION. WASHINGTON POST 5/5/93 A28