Use And Misuse Of Computer Essay One easy way to write the introduction for an argument or opinion essay is to write THREE sentences: two about the topic; one thesis sentence; You can write either.
This is a crucial property of algorithms and programs — another way of stating that an algorithm specifies what should be done, but not necessarily how to do it. This separation of what and how allows for a division of knowledge and labor that is essential to modern computing. Computer users know that most popular programs (say, Microsoft Word or Mozilla Firefox) work the same way no matter what computer they’re running on. You, as a user, don’t need to know that the instructions a Windows machine uses to run the program are entirely different from those used by an Apple machine. This view of the interaction between user and program is known to software engineers as a “black box,” because the user can see everything on the outside of the box — what it does — but nothing on the inside — how it does it.
Nevertheless, users need to be aware that their communications may be intercepted by IT staff as permitted by UK legislation. The legislation allows the interception of network traffic without consent for purposes such as recording evidence of transactions, ensuring regulatory compliance, detecting crime or unauthorized use, and ensuring the efficient operation of University communications systems. The UIS does not need to gain consent before intercepting for these purposes although staff and students do need to be informed (via documentation such as this) that interceptions may take place.
Such statements reveal more than just questionable ethics — they indicate crucial errors in AI researchers’ understanding of both computers and minds. Suppose that the mind is in fact a computer program. Would it then be possible to conclude that what’s inside the mind is irrelevant, as is supposed by some interpretations of the Turing Test? If we have some computer program whose behavior can be completely described as if it were a black box, such a description does not mean that the box is empty, so to speak. The program must still contain some internal structures and properties. They may not be necessary for understanding the program’s external behavior, but they still exist. So even if we possessed a correct account of human mental processes in purely input-output terms (which we do not), such an external description by definition could not describe first-person experience. The Turing Test is not a definition of thinking, but an admission of ignorance — an admission that it is impossible to ever empirically verify the consciousness of any being but yourself. It is only ever possible to gain some level of confidence that another being is thinking or intelligent. So we are stuck measuring correlates of thinking and intelligence, and the Turing Test provides a standard for measuring one type of correlate. Similarly, although social interaction requires communication in the form of such “input-output” as speech and hearing, it also requires two or more agents who experience that interaction: A teddy bear may provide a child with the same comfort and companionship — and elicit from the child the same responses — that another human being would, but we cannot say that it loves.
This precept is based on a crucial misunderstanding of why computers work the way they do. The implicit idea of the Turing Test is that the mind is a program and a program can be described purely in terms of its input-output behavior. To be sure, some programs can be defined by what output they return for a particular input. For example, our sorting program would always return a sorted shelf when given an unsorted shelf. You don’t need to know how the sorting program works, just what it does. However, many other computer programs cannot be described without referring to how they work. Given a program you did not create, attempting to completely explain its behavior without referring to its internal structure is exceedingly difficult (and likely impossible) unless the designer has provided you with its specification. A description of a program solely in terms of its “black box” input-output behavior can only completely describe the program when that description is supplied by the person who designed it.
One of the concepts you encountered in the readings this module was how to recognize the use and misuse of information presented in the form of percentages. In this discussion assignment, you will conduct an Internet search to find several examples of the use of percentages. These can be examples of percentages used in advertising claims, reported results from a study, or information shared by a government agency.
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This implies ever-increasingopportunities for hackers and virus writers to disrupt the activities of their fellow citizens.Hacking first became a prominent issue in the 1980's, with the publicity achieved by exploits such as the Internet Worm, but at that time it was not clear how law enforcement agencies could best tacklethis new threat. Hackers were not causing physical damage to anyone's property; if they refrained frommodifying files but simply logged on to a system without permission, it was hard to see what crime they could be committing under existing law apart from the theft of a negligible amount of electricity. A prominent case in the UK:
Eventually the two were prosecuted under laws against forgery and counterfeiting, on the grounds that they had effectively forged the password.This was overturned by the appeal courton various grounds, one of which was that the password they had used was genuine (not a forgery)even if they hadmade dishonest use of it.The UK Computer Misuse Act 1990 created three categories of offence:
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