For the next two decades the NAWSA worked as a nonpartisan organization focused on gaining the vote in states, although managerial problems and a lack of coordination initially limited its success. The first state to grant women complete voting rights was Wyoming in 1869. Three other western states—Colorado (1893), Utah (1896), and Idaho (1896)—followed shortly after NAWSA was founded. But before 1910 only these four states allowed women to vote. “Why the West first?” remains a contested question. Some scholars suggest that the West proved to be more progressive in extending the vote to women, in part, because there were so few of them on the frontier. Granting women political rights was intended to bring more women westward and to boost the population. Others suggest that women had long played nontraditional roles on the hardscrabble frontier and were accorded a more equal status by men. Still others find that political expediency by territorial officials played a role. They do, however, agree that western women also organized themselves effectively to win the right.7
The turning point came in the late 1880s and early 1890s, when the nation experienced a surge of volunteerism among middle-class women—activists in progressive causes, members of women’s clubs and professional societies, temperance advocates, and participants in local civic and charity organizations. The determination of these women to expand their sphere of activities further outside the home helped legitimize the suffrage movement and provided new momentum for the NWSA and the AWSA. By 1890, seeking to capitalize on their newfound “constituency,” the two groups united to form the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA).6 Led initially by Stanton and then by Anthony, the NAWSA began to draw on the support of women activists in organizations as diverse as the Women’s Trade Union League, the Woman’s Christian Temperance Union, and the National Consumers League.
12 Woman Essay Topics Jun 2009 In the novel Little Women, Louisa May Alcott tells the story of four sisters Tags: english essays, example essay, little women essay topics, little
Role of Women in Society essaysThe role of women in society has been greatly overseen in the last few decades In the early days women were seen as wives who were intended to cook, clean, and take care of the kids. Topics in Paper.
12 Jun 2009 In the novel Little Women, Louisa May Alcott tells the story of four sisters Tags: english essays, example essay, little women essay topics, little
The linking of peace with womens human rights is not a new concept. Since the late 19th century, women activists connected the need for an organized peace keeping system with the protection of womens civil rights. In the decades before World War I, rivalry among the European Great Powers had led to a build up in armaments. The glorification of nationalism and of armed strength found support among many people. War was seen as not only inevitable but as the purest kind of patriotism. Europes increasing militarism was challenged by activists who felt women were best positioned to counter it. This reflected the 19th and early 20th century notion that women were more innately inclined toward pacifism than were men, and were the more moral of the two sexes. As defenders of the moral life against the supposed innate militarism of men, some women felt that their natural mission was to try and prevent war.
Female role models and archetypes play right into this belief. Heroines, protagonists, cartoon characters, even religious and historical figures, echo this notion. Women are taught that in order to have value, they must be desirable and attractive to men, and in order to attract men, they must be submissive. Many women, who may well be naturally dominant, stifle this desire in order to conform. Our society is so fearful and disdainful of dominant females that we have a litany of pejorative names and phrases assigned to them such as "bitch," "ball-buster," or "the one who wears the pants," to name but a few. The contrasting list for submissive men is even longer: spineless, henpecked, milk toast, pussy whipped, mealy mouthed, etc. Is it any wonder, if language is the mirror of a culture, that not only are women encouraged to be submissive, men are resolutely discouraged from it.
Peace groups had strong ties to international suffrage groups, further strengthening the creation of pan-national womens peace movements. Women who could not vote and had no say in the matter of war or peace quite naturally linked the issues of suffrage and peace in these militaristic years. Some naively believed that if women had a voice in national and international affairs, war would cease forever. Socialists also took up world peace as a major issue. Detractors were quick to criticize the convergence of these causes. In the United States, the pointed out that: Pacifist, socialist, feminist, suffragist, are all parts of the same movement - a movement which weakens government, corrupts society, and threatens the very existence of our great experiment in democracy.
Beginning in 1899 a series of peace conferences were held in Europe at the Hague to discuss ways to initiate international arbitration and mediation tribunals. At the 1915 Hague Conference, a Congress of Women was held. Although some countries forbade their womens groups from attending, hundreds of American and European women from twelve countries came together to try to stop the slaughter of World War I. A prominent American, Jane Addams, chaired the Womens Peace Party. Addams, who was awarded a Noble Peace Prize in 1931, believed that fighting burns away that finely tempered sense of justice, and that her work with emigrants from all countries at Chicagos Hull House was the model for democratic development across national barriers and race and class.
The beginning of the fight for women’s suffrage in the United States, which predates entry into Congress by nearly 70 years, grew out of a larger women’s rights movement. That reform effort evolved during the 19th century, initially emphasizing a broad spectrum of goals before focusing solely on securing the franchise for women. Women’s suffrage leaders, moreover, often disagreed about the tactics and whether to prioritize federal or state reforms. Ultimately, the suffrage movement provided political training for some of the early women pioneers in Congress, but its internal divisions foreshadowed the persistent disagreements among women in Congress and among women’s rights activists after the passage of the 19th Amendment.
The outbreak of World War I split feminist organizations along pacifist and nationalist lines. Most groups dropped both their suffrage actions and calls for peace to redirected their energies into war-related work. Pacifists did achieve some goals, however. The Womens International League for Peace and Freedom (WILPF), which is still in existence, grew out of the Hague Congress, and in the United States many of the proposals of the Congress of Women at The Hague were later embodied in President Wilsons Fourteen Points.